Tools to facilitate communication during physician‐patient consultations in cancer care: An overview of systematic reviews

Abstract Tools have been developed to facilitate communication and support information exchange between people diagnosed with cancer and their physicians. Patient‐reported outcome measures, question prompt lists, patient‐held records, tape recordings of consultations, decision aids, and survivorship care plans have all

Direct Reprogramming of Human Neurons Identifies MARCKSL1 as a Pathogenic Mediator of Valproic Acid-Induced Teratogenicity

Chanda et al. used reprogrammed human neurons to model the neurodevelopmental toxicity induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid, a potent teratogenic compound. By analyzing different phases of neuronal maturation in vitro, the authors identified valproate-mediated cellular mechanisms that selectively impair neuronal

Assessing molecular subtypes of gastric cancer: microsatellite unstable and Epstein-Barr virus subtypes. Methods for detection and clinical and pathological implications

Background The molecular classification of gastric cancer recognises two subtypes prone to immune checkpoint blockade: the microsatellite unstable and the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related tumours. We aim to assess the concordance between immunohistochemistry and PCR for microsatellite status evaluation, and explore

Immune-checkpoint inhibition for metastatic triple-negative breast cancer: safety first?

Immune-checkpoint inhibition for metastatic triple-negative breast cancer: safety first? Immune-checkpoint inhibition for metastatic triple-negative breast cancer: safety first?, Published online: 03 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41571-019-0216-2 Breast oncologists are intimately familiar with managing treatment-related adverse events of endocrine, cytotoxic and targeted therapies,

Phase I Study of Aurora A Kinase Inhibitor Alisertib (MLN8237) in Combination With Selective VEGFR Inhibitor Pazopanib for Therapy of Advanced Solid Tumors

Objectives: Pazopanib is a multikinase angiogenesis inhibitor. Alisertib is a highly selective inhibitor of mitotic Aurora A kinase. There is preclinical evidence that mitosis-targeting agents exhibit antiangiogenic effects. Thus, the combination of these 2 agents may have a synergistic effect

Phase IB Study of Induction Chemotherapy With XELOX, Followed by Radiation Therapy, Carboplatin, and Everolimus in Patients With Locally Advanced Esophageal Cancer

Purpose: Preclinical studies have shown synergy between everolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, radiation, and platinum agents. We conducted a phase IB trial to determine the recommended phase II dose of everolimus with carboplatin and radiation. Materials and Methods: Patients with stage

A Human iPSC Double-Reporter System Enables Purification of Cardiac Lineage Subpopulations with Distinct Function and Drug Response Profiles

Wu and colleagues create a double-knockin human TBX5Clover2 and NKX2-5TagRFP reporter to delineate cardiac lineages during differentiation. Molecular and functional analyses uncover that differential expression of TBX5 and NKX2-5 specifies different cardiac fate. This reporter is applicable for studying cardiac

Vessel co-option in cancer

Vessel co-option in cancer Vessel co-option in cancer, Published online: 28 February 2019; doi:10.1038/s41571-019-0181-9 Despite much hope, anti-angiogenic agents have largely failed to achieve the promise demonstrated in preclinical models. In this Review, the authors discuss an alternative hypothesis —

Development of sodium fluoride PET response criteria for solid tumours (NAFCIST) in a clinical trial of radium-223 in osteosarcoma: from RECIST to PERCIST to NAFCIST

Purpose The development of osteosarcoma therapeutics has been challenging, in part because of the lack of appropriate criteria to evaluate responses. We developed a novel criteria in a clinical trial of radium-223 dichloride (223RaCl2) for response assessment in osteosarcoma, NAFCIST

De Novo PITX1 Expression Controls Bi-Stable Transcriptional Circuits to Govern Self-Renewal and Differentiation in Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Self-renewal and differentiation programs are critical determinants of tissue homeostasis and tumor growth. Sastre-Perona et al. identify a cancer-specific PITX1-, SOX2-, and TRP63-dependent transcriptional feed-forward circuit that governs self-renewal and squamous cell carcinoma growth as it inhibits KLF4-dependent differentiation.

Lentiviral Gene Therapy in HSCs Restores Lineage-Specific Foxp3 Expression and Suppresses Autoimmunity in a Mouse Model of IPEX Syndrome

Masiuk et al. use a lentiviral vector designed from endogenous FOXP3 regulatory elements in HSCs to achieve lineage-specific FoxP3 expression. This strategy restores functional Treg cell development from FoxP3mut HSCs and reverses autoimmunity in vivo. These findings suggest preclinical efficacy for lentiviral

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