Schizophrenia is a psychiatric syndrome characterized by psychotic symptoms of hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized speech, by negative symptoms such as decreased motivation and diminished expressiveness, and by cognitive deficits involving impaired executive functions, memory, and speed of…


Neurosyphilis, the clinical result of infection of the nervous system by Treponema pallidum, preoccupied the fields of neurology and psychiatry for two centuries. The disease was ubiquitous, and practitioners recognized it from the slightest clinical manifestations. There has been a

Safety and efficacy of Edaravone Dexborneol versus edaravone for patients with acute ischaemic stroke: a phase II, multicentre, randomised, double-blind, multiple-dose, active-controlled clinical trial

Background Edaravone Dexborneol is a novel neuroprotective agent that comprised edaravone and (+)-borneol, a food additive with an anti-inflammatory effect in animal ischaemic stroke models. This study aims to assess the safety and efficacy of Edaravone Dexborneol compared with edaravone

Defining chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy subtypes

An electrophysiological and biopsy study of 106 patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy identifies differences between disease subtypes Chronic inflammatory neuropathies include multifocal motor neuropathy, which is purely motor and often associated with complement-fixing antibodies to ganglioside GM1, paraproteinaemic demyelinating

Enhanced mGlu5 Signaling in Excitatory Neurons Promotes Rapid Antidepressant Effects via AMPA Receptor Activation

Conventional antidepressants have limited efficacy and many side effects, highlighting the need for fast-acting and specific medications. Holz et al. utilize cell-membrane-permeable TAT-fused peptides, which specifically modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission, as a novel strategy for rapid and effective antidepressant treatment.

Cortical Neurogenesis Requires Bcl6-Mediated Transcriptional Repression of Multiple Self-Renewal-Promoting Extrinsic Pathways

Bonnefont et al. show that Bcl6 promotes neurogenesis by directly repressing genes belonging to the major signaling pathways promoting cortical progenitor self-renewal. These data indicate that a single cell-intrinsic factor represses multiple extrinsic signaling pathways to ensure irreversible neurogenic commitment.

Weak and Winded

Foreword. In this Journal feature, information about a real patient is presented in stages (boldface type) to an expert clinician, who responds to the information by sharing relevant background and reasoning with the reader (regular type). The authors’ commentary follows.

Regional Heterogeneity in Gene Expression, Regulation, and Coherence in the Frontal Cortex and Hippocampus across Development and Schizophrenia

Collado-Torres et al. describe the BrainSeq Phase II gene expression resource encompassing two brain regions from 551 genotyped individuals spanning the entire human lifespan (286 with schizophrenia). This resource can answer region-specific questions about development and schizophrenia and its genetic risk.

VIP Interneurons Contribute to Avoidance Behavior by Regulating Information Flow across Hippocampal-Prefrontal Networks

How VIP interneurons modulate network-level activity to regulate behavior is not understood. Lee et al. show that in the elevated plus maze, prefrontal VIP neurons promote open arm avoidance by disinhibiting theta-frequency communication that transmits anxiety-related information across hippocampal-prefrontal networks.

Multiplexing of Theta and Alpha Rhythms in the Amygdala-Hippocampal Circuit Supports Pattern Separation of Emotional Information

Zheng et al. demonstrate that successful pattern separation of emotional stimuli is associated with bidirectional amygdala-hippocampal interactions via theta band (3–7 Hz). In contrast, unidirectional influence from the amygdala to the hippocampus via alpha band (7–13 Hz) leads to overgeneralization errors (i.e., failure

Cytoplasmic TDP-43 De-mixing Independent of Stress Granules Drives Inhibition of Nuclear Import, Loss of Nuclear TDP-43, and Cell Death

TDP-43 aggregation is the major hallmark of multiple neurodegenerative diseases, including ALS and FTD. Gasset-Rosa et al. demonstrate that transient stress induces long-lasting cytoplasmic TDP-43 de-mixing independent of stress granules, driving nuclear import defects, nuclear TDP-43 clearance, and cell death.

Somatostatin-Expressing Interneurons Enable and Maintain Learning-Dependent Sequential Activation of Pyramidal Neurons

Adler et al. reveal mechanisms underlying learning-dependent sequential activation of pyramidal neurons in the primary motor cortex. SST-expressing interneurons and CaMKII-dependent synaptic plasticity control the establishment of sequential activity during motor training and prevent the interference from new learning.

Activity Correlations between Direction-Selective Retinal Ganglion Cells Synergistically Enhance Motion Decoding from Complex Visual Scenes

Direction-selective retinal ganglion cells encode visual motion but also respond to luminance changes. Kühn and Gollisch report that this dual-feature sensitivity creates ambiguities for decoding complex motion stimuli. Population decoding resolves these ambiguities and provides a synergistic motion readout.

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