DNA-based memory devices for recording cellular events DNA-based memory devices for recording cellular events, Published online: 20 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41576-018-0052-8 In this Review, Sheth and Wang describe emerging synthetic biology approaches for using DNA as a memory device for recording
Computational tools to unmask transposable elements Computational tools to unmask transposable elements, Published online: 19 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41576-018-0050-x The repetitive nature of transposable elements (TEs) creates bioinformatic challenges that frequently result in them being disregarded (‘masked’) in analyses. As physiological
Progress and potential in organoid research Progress and potential in organoid research, Published online: 18 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41576-018-0051-9 Organoids are 3D structures derived from stem cells that recapitulate some key characteristics of real organs. The authors review recent progress in
The girl with Neanderthal and Denisovan parents The girl with Neanderthal and Denisovan parents, Published online: 12 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41576-018-0054-6 A study in Nature characterizes the genome of Denisova 11 and reveals her to be a first-generation offspring of Neanderthal
Full speed ahead for single-cell analysis Full speed ahead for single-cell analysis, Published online: 28 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41576-018-0049-3 A study in Nature describes RNA velocity, which is a computational method to derive dynamic gene expression information from static single-cell RNA
Effective post-operative pain management is a crucial component of recovery following surgery. Narcotics are a cornerstone of post-operative analgesia, but can require a re-dosing requirement, encompass a lengthy list of side effects and adverse reaction risks as well as carry
The optimal route of delivery in early onset preeclampsia before 34 weeks is debated, as many clinicians are reluctant to proceed with induction for perceived high risk of failure.
Among reproductive-aged women, exposure to interpersonal trauma is associated with genitourinary symptoms. Little is known about the relationship between these exposures and the genitourinary health of older women, who tend to experience different and more prevalent genitourinary symptoms due to
Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a common health problem in women and has a negative influence on quality of life. A major cause of POP is levator injury.
CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, Volume 68, Issue 4, Page 282-283, July/August 2018.
CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, Volume 68, Issue 4, Page 237-239, July/August 2018.
CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, Volume 68, Issue 4, Page 235-236, July/August 2018.
CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, Volume 68, Issue 4, Page 297-316, July/August 2018.
CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, Volume 68, Issue 4, Page 250-281, July/August 2018.
In their essay arguing for ethical review of social research, Sheehan et al write: Inquiry and human life are intertwined and interdependent. To be human is to be curious, to ask questions about yourself, the world, and your place in the world.
In 1989, Susan Wolf convincingly warned of a troublesome consequence that should discourage any movement in American society towards physician-assisted death—a legal backlash against the gains made for limiting life-sustaining treatment. The authors demonstrate that this dire consequence did not
Human allografts for life-threatening organ failure have been demonstrated to be lifesaving and are now considered to be standard of care for many conditions. Transplantation of non-vital anatomic body parts has also been accomplished. Hand transplantation after limb loss in
Background National guidelines require programmes use subjective assessments of social support when determining transplant suitability, despite limited evidence linking it to outcomes. We examined how transplant providers weigh the importance of social support for kidney transplantation compared with other factors,
Objective Dignified care protects the patient’s rights and provides appropriate ethical care while improving the quality of nursing care. In this context, the opinions of nurses and patients who receive nursing care about dignified care are important. The aim of
In this Viewpoint, 2018 Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award winners Michael Grunstein and C. David Allis discuss the discovery and influence of histones on human genetic expression.
In this Viewpoint, 2018 Lasker-DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award winner John B. Glen discusses the discovery and development of propofol, one of the most widely used anesthetics for patient care.
This Viewpoint suggests strategies for reducing maternal mortality in the United States, including creation of a national maternal mortality surveillance system, use of maternal safety bundles within health systems, and improving access to quality health care for all women.
This Viewpoint reviews evidence of the benefits of thrombectomy for patients with ischemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion, and details the systems of care that need to be developed to ensure that all patients who might benefit from the
Effect of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection at the end of vitrectomy for vitreous hemorrhage related to proliferative diabetic retinopathy (see page 1351) In a prospective multicenter randomised study, intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide at the end of vitrectomy was associated
The BJO is primarily a clinical and scientific journal and rarely comments on commercial activities. Nevertheless, the recent developments in the field of glaucoma surgery,1 merit some comment. An area that has traditionally failed to attract significant commercial interest has
Polytetrafluoroethylene (Gore-Tex) suture is preferred for scleral fixation of intraocular lenses or capsular tension devices as it is more resilient to breakage than polypropylene 10–0. However, manipulation of the thick calibre and overcurved configuration of the Gore-Tex needle within the eye
Purpose To determine the prevalence of refractive errors in Colombia and its relations with demographic and socioeconomic variables. Methods A cross-sectional study performed in 10 Colombian administrative districts (MIOPUR study), including children and adolescents from 8 to 17 years old
Background Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness. Until recently, reliable data on the global extent of the disease, detailed plans for elimination, and government, donor and partner engagement were all inadequate. Methods The trachoma community undertook a systematic, three-pronged strategy
The p16 gene belongs to INK4 family of genes and is made up of four members: p16 INK4A, p15 INK4B, p18 INK4C and p19 INK4D, all of which share biological properties, namely, inhibition of cell growth and tumour suppression. After
In this month’s issue, we introduce a prototype article for a new section, the JCP Grand Rounds (see pages 860). The articles are meant to centre around a case report and provide an in-depth discussion of interesting cases with a multidisciplinary
Clinical presentation A 2-year-old girl was referred for evaluation because she had two nodular lesions located on both heels, and another elongated lesion in the intergluteal cleft. On physical examination, two yellow to orange well-defined nodules, suggestive of xanthomas, were
Phytosterolaemia,1 causing severe atherosclerosis,2 illustrates the stringent requirements for sterols in membranes and the impact of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor on metabolism, but is not associated with malformations seen with sterol biosynthetic defects. Membranes contain hopanoids3 in bacteria and a
Sitosterolaemia is a very rare disease—only about 100 individuals with the condition have been described in the medical literature.1 It is caused by mutations in the ABCG5 or ABCG8 genes, which code for the two subunits of the heterodimeric G5G8
If current trends persist, one in six U.S. men who have sex with men will be infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in their lifetime, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This prediction highlights the long
After nearly a decade of experimentation with value-based payment (VBP), U.S. health care payers, providers, and purchasers are confronting uneven adoption of new care guidelines, modest early results, and still-unacceptable gaps in spending and quality. In determining what comes next,
Several large, randomized trials have shown the efficacy of aspirin for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease among persons with a history of coronary heart disease or stroke. The evidence supporting a benefit of aspirin therapy in the primary prevention
The Aspirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) trial was a primary prevention trial that was established to investigate whether the daily use of 100 mg of enteric-coated aspirin would prolong the healthy life span of older adults. The
Dramatic increases in life expectancy over the past century have led to a substantial demographic shift toward an aging society in many countries. Thus, maintaining good health in older persons is an increasingly important public health aim. Cardiovascular diseases are
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by a decline in lung function, dyspnea, and impaired health-related quality of life. Recurrent epithelial injury, accelerated aging, and aberrant cellular repair mechanisms, resulting in excess deposition of extracellular matrix, are viewed as…
Universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services by 2030 is a target under the Sustainable Development Goals. Lack of access to modern energy is responsible for a high burden of respiratory and cardiovascular ill health, a burden falling
Objective Office environments have been causally linked to workplace-related illnesses and stress, yet little is known about how office workstation type is linked to objective metrics of physical activity and stress. We aimed to explore these associations among office workers
Background Benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) are aromatic hydrocarbons with inconclusive evidence of lung carcinogenicity. The aim of this research was to assess the associations between occupational exposures to BTX agents and lung cancer. Methods In a population-based case-control study
Background There is moderate quality evidence that integrating work-directed interventions and components from psychological therapies reduces sickness absence in the medium term. We aimed to extend this evidence by examining objectively ascertained income and work participation status up to 4
Objectives Diacetyl, a butter flavour compound used in food and flavouring production, is a respiratory toxin. We characterised the burden of respiratory abnormalities in workers at popcorn and flavouring manufacturing facilities that used diacetyl as evaluated through US National Institute
Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated disorder that impairs patients’ physical health, quality of life, and work productivity. Almost one fifth of affected persons have moderate-to-severe disease, with extensive skin involvement affecting at least 3% of the body-surface area. Systemic treatments…
By my third time caring for John, there was a certain familiarity in our interactions. An overweight white man with salt-and-pepper hair, John was in his early 50s and lived with his father. He’d been a successful chef but struggled
Hawa rushed her husband Ahmed to the emergency department when she found him unconscious. For months, Ahmed had refused to go to the hospital because he knew Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) officers were nearby. Ahmed is a U.S. citizen,
In 2015, the Supreme Court of Canada decided to decriminalize medical assistance in dying for patients who are experiencing “grievous and irremediable” suffering. The next year, the Canadian government passed legislation that permits physicians to hasten the death of a
A 55-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital after sustaining a severe crush injury to both legs in a motor vehicle accident. A polymicrobial wound infection developed, and she received treatment with intravenous meropenem and oral minocycline. Black discoloration of
In 1998, the Journal published one of the early studies evaluating the sensitivity and specificity of coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA), as compared with invasive coronary angiography, for the detection of obstructive coronary artery disease. Subsequent studies have established that…
Patients with stable chest pain suggestive of coronary heart disease can be evaluated with a variety of noninvasive stress tests that incorporate electrocardiography, radionuclide scintigraphy, echocardiography, or magnetic resonance imaging. Over the past 50 years or more, these techniques have…
It is well known that cells release fluid-filled sacs (vesicles) to the extracellular environment during cell death, or apoptosis, but it has been increasingly recognized that healthy cells may also release vesicles in the process of normal functions. Vesicles that