Tummy Time for ILC2

Little is known about host-microbiota interactions regulating anti-microbial immunity in the stomach. In this issue, Satoh-Takayama et al. describe an additional immune mechanism involving innate lymphoid cells type 2 (ILC2), which controls infection with Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium associated with inflammation

Hereditary Angioedema

Hereditary angioedema is a rare, potentially life-threatening disorder characterized by attacks of cutaneous and submucosal swelling. Quincke first described its clinical presentation, and Osler’s recognition of the autosomal dominant inheritance pattern followed in 1888. The initial name of the…

Programming of Distinct Chemokine-Dependent and -Independent Search Strategies for Th1 and Th2 Cells Optimizes Function at Inflamed Sites

Immune responses are functionally tailored to best contain a specific pathogen challenge. T cells differentiate into functionally distinct subsets (Th1, Th2, Th17) defined by discrete cytokine production. Gaylo-Moynihan et al. find that functional specialization also extends to the navigation system used by

Activation Dynamics and Immunoglobulin Evolution of Pre-existing and Newly Generated Human Memory B cell Responses to Influenza Hemagglutinin

Influenza vaccination occurs in the context of pre-existing immunity. Andrews et al. compare the pre-existing memory IgG B cell response recognizing conserved epitopes on influenza hemagglutinin with the newly generated response to strain-specific epitopes upon H7N9 vaccination. The differences in magnitude,

Defining Genetic Variation in Widely Used Congenic and Backcrossed Mouse Models Reveals Varied Regulation of Genes Important for Immune Responses

Congenic and backcrossed mouse models retain genetic content from their original parent strains, but this genetic variable often remains unknown. Chisolm et al. present alternative processing strategies for next-generation sequencing datasets to define genetic variation and find substantial differences in SJL

Distinct Surface Expression of Activating Receptor Ly49H Drives Differential Expansion of NK Cell Clones upon Murine Cytomegalovirus Infection

Upon infection, T cell clones harboring TCRs of distinct antigen affinity undergo differential expansion. Whether NK cells show similar clonal dynamics is not clear. By using retrogenic color-barcoding and single-cell adoptive transfers, Grassmann et al. show that NK cells adapt to cytomegalovirus

The ATP-Binding Cassette Gene ABCF1 Functions as an E2 Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme Controlling Macrophage Polarization to Dampen Lethal Septic Shock

ABCF1 has been associated with immune signaling and various autoimmune disorders. Arora and colleagues demonstrate that ABCF1 is an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme that regulates various innate immune responses in macrophages, including potentiation of TLR4 endocytosis and M2 polarization, and promotes

Intratumoral Tcf1+PD-1+CD8+ T Cells with Stem-like Properties Promote Tumor Control in Response to Vaccination and Checkpoint Blockade Immunotherapy

Since chronic activation promotes terminal T cell differentiation (exhaustion), it has remained unclear how checkpoint blockade mediates a proliferative response of tumor-infiltrating T cells. Siddiqui et al. identify intratumoral, tumor-reactive Tcf1+PD-1+CD8+ T cells that display stem-like properties and that promote tumor control in response

Disruption of Coronin 1 Signaling in T Cells Promotes Allograft Tolerance while Maintaining Anti-Pathogen Immunity

Avoiding infection as a consequence of immunosuppression following organ transplantation has been elusive. Here, Jayachandran et al. demonstrate that targeting the immunoregulatory protein coronin 1 in mice results in allograft-specific tolerance in the absence of immunosuppression-associated co-morbidities. Coronin 1-deficiency increased cAMP

Age-Related Loss of Innate Immune Antimicrobial Function of Dermal Fat Is Mediated by Transforming Growth Factor Beta

Dermal immature adipocytes fight against Staphylococcus aureus infection by secreting antimicrobial peptides during adipogenesis. Zhang et al. demonstrate that activation of the TGF-β pathway suppresses the adipogenic potential of dermal fibroblasts and therefore leads to an age-dependent loss of antimicrobial protection

An Interleukin-23-Interleukin-22 Axis Regulates Intestinal Microbial Homeostasis to Protect from Diet-Induced Atherosclerosis

While anti-cytokine therapies show promising results in autoimmune diseases, its effects on cardiovascular disease development are not well understood. Fatkhullina and colleagues show that inactivation of IL-23-IL-22 signaling leads to deterioration of the intestinal barrier, expansion of pro-atherogenic bacteria, and

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