Police have opened a new criminal investigation into the deaths of hundreds of patients at the War Memorial Hospital in Gosport, Hampshire, where an inquiry found that many people had had their lives…
Only 64% of obstetrics and gynecology program directors report routine, scheduled training in abortion, despite the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education’s requirements for routine training. Most report that exposure to training is limited to specific clinical circumstances.
Ongoing chromosomal instability and karyotype evolution in human colorectal cancer organoids Ongoing chromosomal instability and karyotype evolution in human colorectal cancer organoids, Published online: 29 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0399-6 The authors use three-dimensional live-cell imaging of colorectal carcinoma organoids to show
Objective Displacement of the mitral valve, mitral annulus disjunction (MAD), is described as a possible aetiology of sudden cardiac death. Stress-induced fibrosis in the mitral valve apparatus has been suggested as the underlying mechanism. We aimed to explore the association
Firing rate set-point regulation has puzzled researchers for decades. Our findings show that mitochondrial DHODH meets the criteria of a bone fide regulator of activity set points and suggest lowering firing set point as a new strategy to treat epilepsy.
The causes and triggers of asthma are varied and complex. Elucidating risk factors has led to a proliferation of studies focused on environmental factors as varied as air pollution, tobacco smoke, diet, cleaning products, and even analgesics. Add to this,
Expanding Medicaid insurance to improve continuity of care for women in lower income families led to better outcomes for black infants, bringing their rates of low birthweight and preterm birth…
As we continue our plan to make the journal fatter in terms of articles per issue, it becomes increasingly difficult to choose which articles to highlight in Fantoms without leaving out lots of interesting content. Nutrition There is a strong nutritional
‘Wonder is the beginning of wisdom. I cannot teach anybody anything. I can only make them think’ Socrates (469–399 BC).1 Greek philosopher Socrates used cross-examination and interrogation of claims to test for potential contradictions or inconsistencies. This is called ‘the
Unintended pregnancies, occurring in nearly one out of every two (45%) pregnancies in the United States, are associated with adverse health and social outcomes for the infant and the mother. The risk of unintended pregnancies is significantly reduced when women
Objectives: Pazopanib is a multikinase angiogenesis inhibitor. Alisertib is a highly selective inhibitor of mitotic Aurora A kinase. There is preclinical evidence that mitosis-targeting agents exhibit antiangiogenic effects. Thus, the combination of these 2 agents may have a synergistic effect
At the end of 2018, the European Hematology Association, in collaboration with the European LeukemiaNet, published a diagnosis and treatment guideline for chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML), a rare clonal haematological malignancy characterised by absolute peripheral monocytosis, ineffective haematopoiesis, and an
Fat mass has been shown to increase in ageing women, however, the extent to which menopausal status mediates these changes remains unclear.
Author Correction: Biallelic expansion of an intronic repeat in RFC1 is a common cause of late-onset ataxia Author Correction: Biallelic expansion of an intronic repeat in RFC1 is a common cause of late-onset ataxia, Published online: 26 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0422-y
The research by von Ehrenstein and colleagues on prenatal and infant exposure to ambient pesticides and autism spectrum disorder in children is a welcome and timely addition to environmental health…
Author Correction: Towards individualized therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma Author Correction: Towards individualized therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma, Published online: 25 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41571-019-0214-4 Author Correction: Towards individualized therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma
Elimination of cancer stem cells in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) while preserving hematopoiesis is a challenge in leukemia treatment. Paris et al. demonstrate that inactivation of the RNA m6A reader YTHDF2 increases the half-life of m6A-modified transcripts and specifically compromises cancer
Elgendy et al. show that metformin administered during the fasting period synergizes with 24-h feeding/fasting cycles to suppress tumor growth. Inhibition of CIP2A by metformin and upregulation of B56δ by low glucose activates PP2A toward GSK3β leading to reduced pro-survival protein
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP, including preeclampsia or gestational hypertension) are associated with fetal growth restriction (FGR) in singleton pregnancies, an association that may be attributed to abnormal placentation as the shared etiology between these conditions. Given that the pathogenesis
Keeping score with obesity Keeping score with obesity, Published online: 25 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41576-019-0132-4 A new study reports a genome-wide polygenic score (GPS) that is predictive of obesity, thus providing opportunities for early health interventions.
Background Poor patient understanding of atrial fibrillation (AF) may contribute to underuse of anticoagulation. There are no validated instruments to measure patient knowledge in Asian cohorts. This study aims to validate a disease-specific questionnaire measuring the level of understanding of
Tumor-infiltrating T cells often lose their effector function. Ma et al. show that cholesterol in the tumor microenvironment induces CD8+ T cell exhaustion in an ER-stress-XBP1-dependent manner. Reducing cholesterol or ER stress enhanced CD8+ T cell antitumor function, highlighting therapeutic avenues to improve T cell-based
The twists and turns of bacterial taxonomy occasionally throw up complications for the infectious diseases community. Long established and familiar organisms are, from the perspective of many medical practitioners, suddenly renamed for what might seem to be arcane reasons that
Meda et al. show that in chronic pain states, mediodorsal thalamic (MD) inputs to the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) undergo pathway-specific changes. As a result, MD-ACC inputs suppress the activity of many subcortically projecting ACC neurons, thereby driving negative pain-related affect.
Robust engraftment of human cancers into optically-clear, immune-deficient zebrafish at physiological temperatures enables dynamic visualization of cell biological phenotypes and therapy responses in single cancer cells over time.
Prior to the introduction of the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine (MMR) in 1963, an estimated 3 to 4 million people in the USA contracted measles annually. As of April 22, 626 children in the USA have become infected with
Objective Complex cardiac devices including implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) and cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) devices can safely be implanted as a day case procedure as opposed to overnight stay. We assess how common day case complex device therapy is and
Oral immunotherapy for peanut allergy, in which patients are exposed to gradually increasing doses of allergen over time, increases the risk of allergic and anaphylactic reactions despite inducing…
COMMENTARY ON: Robson D, Spaducci G, McNeill A, et al. Effect of implementation of a smoke-free policy on physical violence in a psychiatric inpatient setting: an interrupted time series analysis. Lancet Psychiatry 2017;4,540–6. What is already known on this topic
Improving the efficiency of healthcare is essential for reducing healthcare costs. Adherence to evidence-based practice guidelines has the potential to improve health outcomes at lower costs but there are many barriers to consistent implementation of guidelines in clinical practice. Manja
During reproductive age, approximately one in seven couples are confronted with fertility problems. While the aetiology is diverse, including infections, metabolic diseases, hormonal imbalances and iatrogenic effects, it is becoming increasingly clear that genetic factors have a significant contribution. Due
Perioperative FLOT superior to ECF/X Perioperative FLOT superior to ECF/X, Published online: 24 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41571-019-0215-3 Perioperative FLOT superior to ECF/X
Communicating healthcare costs to patients is an important component of delivering high-quality value-based care, yet cost data are lacking. This is especially relevant for ovarian cancer, where no clinical consensus on optimal first-line treatment exists.
Bug battles end in compromise Bug battles end in compromise, Published online: 24 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41576-019-0133-3 An experimental evolution study published in Science demonstrates that non-additive interactions between pollinators (bumblebees) and herbivores (caterpillars) drive rapid evolution in plants.
Objectives To investigate whether preoperative echocardiographic evaluation of ventricular function, especially right ventricular systolic and diastolic parameters including speckle-tracking analysis, could aid in the prediction of 30-day mortality after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in patients with aortic stenosis. Methods
Eating calorically dense, palatable foods is a major contributor to obesity and binge eating. In this article, Hardaway et al. identify a central amygdala brain circuit expressing the neuropeptide prepronociceptin in mice that promotes palatable food consumption and reward.
For the past 25 years, men with suspected prostate cancer on the basis of a raised prostate specific antigen (PSA) test have typically been offered standard transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) guided…
Dr James Roberts has made seminal contributions to the understanding of the physiology of pregnancy and, in particular, to the mechanisms of disease responsible for preeclampsia. His research includes endothelial cell dysfunction, oxidative stress, and other factors that play a
Van der Veeken et al. use naturally occurring cis-regulatory variation in wild-derived inbred mouse strains to dissect mechanisms of stable and reversible gene regulation in CD8 T cells. Their findings reveal central roles for T-box and Runx transcription factors and suggest a
Neocortical circuits are comprised of intermingled excitatory projection neuron and inhibitory interneuron subtypes. Wester et al. show that fate-switching corticocortical projection neurons to a subcerebral type selectively influences the lamination, circuit integration, and gene transcription of CGE-derived interneurons.
Youth sports remain the leading cause of traumatic brain injuries among children and teens, according to a new CDC report. The report found football, bicycling, basketball, playground activities, and soccer were associated with the most head injuries.
Employers in the medical profession must take steps to reduce the stigma of mental illness among their workforce so that doctors feel able to get help, researchers from Swansea University have…
Best Evidence Topic reports (BETs) summarise the evidence pertaining to particular clinical questions. They are not systematic reviews, but rather contain the best (highest level) evidence that can be practically obtained by busy practising clinicians. The search strategies used to
Long-range interactions between topologically associating domains shape the four-dimensional genome during differentiation Long-range interactions between topologically associating domains shape the four-dimensional genome during differentiation, Published online: 22 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0392-0 The authors identify the formation of dynamic topologically associating domain
Grid cells in entorhinal cortex underlie spatial orientation and path finding. Bao et al. show that entorhinal grid-like codes with behavioral relevance emerge when humans mentally navigate an olfactory landscape, highlighting potential neural mechanisms for locating odor sources in odiferous environments.
Prior to the World Congress of Cardiology on Cardiovascular Health (WCC) in Dubai, the 3rd Global Summit on Circulatory Health was held on 4–5 December 2018. The Summit brought together international, continental and national organizations and leaders in health, academia,
Introduction Myocardial injury markers such as high-sensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) reflects the amount of myocardial injury with ablation. The aim of the study was to identify the value of myocardial injury markers to predict
Objective We aimed to examine the impact of heart failure (HF) on stroke mortality (in-hospital and postdischarge) and recurrence in a national stroke cohort from Thailand. Methods We used a large, insurance-based database including all stroke admissions in the public
Background Globally, the number of internet users has crossed the three-billion mark, while in India users grew over 17% in the first 6 months of 2015 to 354 million. This study presented a background on internet use and the existence
Wright D, Tan MY, O’Gorman N, et al. Predictive performance of the competing risk model in screening for preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2019;220:199.e1-13.
Brack and colleagues identify a muscle reserve stem cell population marked by Mx1-Cre and Pax3 within the Pax7+ satellite cell pool. After radiation, reserve stem cells clonally expand to become the dominant stem cell population for repair and stem cell
Cappel et al. report that, in the liver, pyruvate carboxylase (PC) maintains TCA cycle intermediates, and that its loss is insufficiently compensated by alternative pathways. Hence, PC flux is essential for TCA-cycle-dependent biosynthesis, including gluconeogenesis, and has additional roles in maintaining
Jiang-Xie et al. identified a specific group of hypothalamic neurons (AANs) commonly activated by multiple classes of general anesthetics. Stimulation of AANs potentiates slow-wave sleep and general anesthesia (GA), whereas inhibition of AANs disrupts natural sleep and destabilizes GA.
Metabolites produced by the human microbiota can function as agonists for a wide range of G protein-coupled receptors, making metabolome screening a useful tool to both de-orphanize human GPCRs and identify metabolic exchanges between commensal microbes in the gut with
The Chinese characters for doctor also refer to scholar-bureaucrats, which was the highest aspiration for intellectuals in ancient China. Doctors were then respected as much as Confucian elites who were supposed to have high moral standards and be well educated,
Nadia Vulvokov, the protagonist of the 2019 Netflix television series Russian Doll, finds herself trapped in a seemingly endless loop of events. Every course of action ends in her being returned, bewildered, to the bathroom of a trendy New York
Half of patients prescribed statins in primary care fail to reach the target cholesterol concentration specified by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) after two years, a new…
Milestones Like many words with an implicit sense of drama, ‘milestones’ has become something of an overused term, a ‘millstone’, if you will. There are occasions, though, where it is fully justified and, by chance, this month’s issue describes events
Accuracy of a point-of-care test for hCG Point-of-care testing (POCT), performed at or near the site of patient care, is now available for early quantitative measurement of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels. Could this help exclude ectopic pregnancy at very
Author Correction: Therapeutic implications of germline genetic findings in cancer Author Correction: Therapeutic implications of germline genetic findings in cancer, Published online: 17 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41571-019-0212-6 Author Correction: Therapeutic implications of germline genetic findings in cancer
Alternative splicing of presynaptic neurexin-1 and -3 at splice site 4 is shown to regulate the receptor composition of excitatory synapses. Neurexin-1-SS4+ increases NMDA receptor responses, whereas neurexin-3-SS4+ suppresses AMPA receptor responses. Thus, presynaptic neurexin alternative splicing shapes the postsynaptic
UK universities are leading the way in reporting their clinical trial results—beating other European institutions hands down—but only after government pressure to improve, a recent study shows.1The…
Prior non-irradiative focal therapies do not compromise the efficacy of delayed episcleral plaque brachytherapy in retinoblastoma (see page 699) In a retrospective study of 50 patients, the lack of prior diode or green laser therapy was predictive of an increased
Accurate information about a nation’s sexual health is essential to plan and evaluate services, inform prevention efforts, and contribute to societal discourse on sexuality. In Britain, sexual health data come from a range of sources. There are world-class surveillance data
Background With an aggravated social ageing level, the number of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is gradually increasing, and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered to be an early form of Alzheimer’s disease. How to distinguish diseases in the early
Pembrolizumab improves OS across PD-L1 subgroups Pembrolizumab improves OS across PD-L1 subgroups, Published online: 16 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41571-019-0213-5 Pembrolizumab improves OS across PD-L1 subgroups
The state of the science for research on multifetal gestations is reviewed, including an estimation for how often multiples are excluded from studies, whether findings from studies of singletons can be translated to multiples where data gaps exist, unique aspects
Author Correction: Transposable elements drive widespread expression of oncogenes in human cancers Author Correction: Transposable elements drive widespread expression of oncogenes in human cancers, Published online: 16 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0416-9 Author Correction: Transposable elements drive widespread expression of oncogenes in
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs; also known as endocrine disruptors) are chemicals that alter endocrine function by mimicking, blocking, or interfering with the production, metabolism, or action of hormones in the body. Found in foods, packaging materials, cosmetics, drinking water, and consumer
In this work on glutamate corelease by dopamine neurons, Silm et al. show that an individual neuron expresses two classes of synaptic vesicle that form through distinct mechanisms and transmit distinct information due to differences in frequency dependence.
Experts continue to find zoonotic bacteria with high levels of antimicrobial resistance in humans, animals, and food, according to a new report from the European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control.
The Home Office has used a child’s medical notes to reject her family’s asylum request, claiming that the notes showed that the family were not telling the truth about why they had come to the UK.The…
Postmortem microbiology (PMM) is a valuable tool in the identification of the cause of death and of factors contributory to death where death has been caused by infection. The value of PMM is dependent on careful autopsy planning, appropriate sampling,
Background Methamphetamine (MA) is one of the most commonly abused illicit psychostimulant drugs and MA use disorder constitutes a universal health concern across the world. Despite many intervention approaches to MA use disorder, the indicator of addiction severity is mainly
A reinforcing HNF4–SMAD4 feed-forward module stabilizes enterocyte identity A reinforcing HNF4–SMAD4 feed-forward module stabilizes enterocyte identity, Published online: 15 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0384-0 The authors show that the transcription factors HNF4A and HNF4G regulate the transcriptome of the intestinal epithelium. HNF4
Su et al. demonstrate that VTA GABA neurons signal aversion to itch and DA neurons mediate scratching-associated reward. Differential activation and function of VTA neurons may underlie the progression of vicious itch-scratch cycles.
Background Resting heart rate (RHR), a known cardiovascular risk factor, changes with age. However, little is known about the association between changes in RHR and the risk of cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess the
Introducing competition into the NHS in England to try to drive up quality had the perverse effect of lowering it for some elective procedures, a team of economists from Surrey and York universities…
This Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) Guideline for postoperative care in Cesarean Delivery (CD) will provide best practice, evidenced-based, recommendations for post-operative care with, primarily a maternal focus. The pathway process for scheduled and unscheduled CD, for this ERAS CD
A leading expert on asbestos related cancers has won a landmark Data Protection Act claim at the High Court against a lobbyist who accused him of giving fraudulent evidence in court cases and tried…
Ferguson KK, Meeker JD, McElrath TF, et al. Repeated measures of inflammation and oxidative stress biomarkers in preeclamptic and normotensive pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017;216:527.e1-9.
Spatial transcriptomics coming of age Spatial transcriptomics coming of age, Published online: 12 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41576-019-0129-z Two new spatial transcriptomics techniques published in Nature and Science bring us an important step closer to the goal of achieving transcriptome-wide data at
The recent article by Pisetsky et al1, showing data derived from a comparison between different antinuclear antibody (ANA) assays in a cohort of patients with established systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), addresses several important and current aspects of ANA detection. In addition,
Should doctors be able to cry at work?1 The answer is entirely contextual. There is an absolute difference between crying during an emotionally challenging conversation with the family of a dying…
Objectives To estimate the prevalence of non-calcified coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with suspected stable angina and a zero coronary artery calcification (CAC) score, and to assess the prognostic significance of a zero CAC in these symptomatic patients. Methods
Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic which is described to have higher efficacy among all available antipsychotic medications. Clozapine is reserved especially for resistant schizophrenia due to its side effects. Clozapine-induced metabolic syndrome and hyperglycaemia are common long-term side effects and
Wei et al. show that human and mouse prostate stromal cells exhibit region-specific differences in Wnt ligand expression and Wnt/β-catenin activity. Canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling cooperate to restrain prostate stem or progenitor activity through direct and indirect TGFβ-dependent pathways.
The optimal imaging modality of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIs) needs to take into consideration convenience, availability and ability to assess the sphincter morphology. Endoanal ultrasound is currently regarded as the reference standard but is not widely available in obstetric
Sanchez-Lopez et al. have found that inhibition of choline uptake and phosphorylation in activated macrophages prevent NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1β and IL-18 production. Inhibition of choline incorporation into phosphatidylcholine in the mitochondrial membranes and decreased ATP synthase activity lead to
Whether and how astrocytes release glutamate to regulate neuronal function are debated. Yang et al. show that Swell1 volume-regulated anion channel is a glutamate-releasing channel in astrocytes, which regulates basal synaptic transmission and contributes to excitotoxicity in ischemic stroke.
Human pluripotent founder cells within stem cell cultures share hallmark properties with primitive endoderm and reside exclusively at colony boundaries.
2019 marks the 60th anniversary of the 26th of July Movement, which established Fidel Castro as the leader of the new Cuban Government. Decades later, Cuba is holding fast to its Communist ideology, even after revolutionary icon Fidel Castro’s death
The US justice department has brought a felony indictment against the UK drug maker Indivior, alleging that it misrepresented the safety of its sublingual Suboxone Film, an opioid replacement therapy…
Preliminary results from a feasibility study suggest a potential role for flavonoid enriched cocoa to treat fatigue, one of the most challenging symptoms of multiple sclerosis In their JNNP paper, Coe et al report the preliminary results of a feasibility
The Swiss Sports Physiotherapy Association (SSPA) will hold its 17th annual conference on 22nd November 2019 in Bern, capital of Switzerland and home of this event since 2005 (figure 1). The goal of SSPA has always been to organise a high-quality
This month’s “Airwaves” celebrates the musicals from the West End, Broadway and the Silver Screen…the Triumvirate’s guilty pleasure! Grease: asthma self-management at Rydell high? We don’t know if the effectiveness of school-based self-management interventions for asthma among children and adolescents
It is worthwhile to consider the review by Dupont et al1 in the historical context of work design and occupational medicine. In the mid-20th century, the focus of work physical demand research was on occupations with high intensity physical work
Microbial signatures of colorectal cancer Microbial signatures of colorectal cancer, Published online: 10 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41576-019-0126-2 Two meta-analyses of fecal metagenomics studies report the presence of a microbial signature that is predictive of colorectal cancer.
Liang et al. describe neural outputs from the Drosophila circadian pacemaker network regulating locomotor rhythms: via a specific dopamine relay, the network forms parallel connections to the central complex, the pre-motor area dictating the balance between rest and activity.
On Feb 11, 2019, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) took action against 17 companies that sell dietary supplements, for claiming that they can treat Alzheimer’s disease. Scott Gottlieb, the FDA Commissioner at the time, released a statement explaining
Vaccine hesitancy, which is defined by WHO as a “delay in acceptance or refusal of vaccines despite availability of vaccination services”, has been reported in more than 90% of countries in the world. In many areas, immunisation for measles, a
In the UK, palliative care is closely associated with hospices, which are often situated away from hospitals.1 Although the off-site, quite often serene location of hospices has some advantages, it…
Most patients with new-onset heart failure (HF) will present to a primary care provider with symptoms of fatigue, breathlessness and ankle swelling. Diagnosis can be challenging given the nonspecific nature and frequency of these symptoms in the general population as
Cell-state dynamics and therapeutic resistance in melanoma from the perspective of MITF and IFNγ pathways Cell-state dynamics and therapeutic resistance in melanoma from the perspective of MITF and IFNγ pathways, Published online: 09 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41571-019-0204-6 The authors of this
EBV is associated with B cell and epithelial-cell malignancies. Bu et al. showed that an EBV nanoparticle vaccine elicits antibodies to EBV gH/gL and gp42 in mice and non-human primates that inhibit the viral-fusion apparatus and block infection of B cells
Zheng et al. demonstrate that successful pattern separation of emotional stimuli is associated with bidirectional amygdala-hippocampal interactions via theta band (3–7 Hz). In contrast, unidirectional influence from the amygdala to the hippocampus via alpha band (7–13 Hz) leads to overgeneralization errors (i.e., failure
Use of e-cigarettes during pregnancy may be common despite the potential risks, according to a CDC report. It found that 10% of women reported use of these devices shortly before pregnancy, 7% reported use around the time of pregnancy, and
An oral surgeon who removed the wrong tooth and then misled the patient and attempted to influence a nurse’s testimony during a subsequent trust investigation has been suspended from the UK medical…
Kister I, Spelman T, Alroughani R, et al. Discontinuing disease-modifying therapy in MS after a prolonged relapse-free period: a propensity score-matched study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2016;87:1133-7. doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2016-313760 In this article there was a discrepancy between the text and
Background/aims To monitor treatment-naïve patients with wet age-related macular degeneration (wet AMD) receiving intravitreal aflibercept (IVT-AFL) in France. Methods RAINBOW (Real life use of intravitreal Aflibercept In FraNce – oBservatiOnal study in Wet age-related macular degeneration) is an ongoing, observational,
Objectives Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) may be beneficial to patients following transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and open surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). We aimed to undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy, safety and costs of
Blasco et al. show that ablation of Egfr and Raf1 results in complete regression of a subset of mutant Kras/Trp53-induced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC) without overt toxicity. Inhibition of EGFR and c-RAF expression also blocks the progression of patient-derived PDAC xenografts
Durum wheat genome highlights past domestication signatures and future improvement targets Durum wheat genome highlights past domestication signatures and future improvement targets, Published online: 08 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0381-3 Genome assembly of durum wheat cultivar Svevo enables genome-wide genetic diversity analyses
Journal of Neurotrauma, Volume 36, Issue 8, Page 1195-1202, April 15, 2019.
bmj;365/apr08_10/l1571/FAF1faStephan Elias Tchamouroff was born in Jerusalem to Bulgarian parents. After joining the Jordanian army he was sent on a scholarship to study medicine at St Bartholomew’s…
The last decade has seen an explosion in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in many diseases. With these—and its worth reminding ourselves that this is the primary goal of GWAS—have come valuable insights into pathogenic pathways. Some have been predictable (eg,
68Ga-PSMA-11 PET enables accurate detection of recurrent disease 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET enables accurate detection of recurrent disease, Published online: 05 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41571-019-0210-8 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET enables accurate detection of recurrent disease
Clifford C, Ankumah N-A, Valenzuela A, et al. 841: Stroke in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2019;220:S549.
Ancient pathogen genomics as an emerging tool for infectious disease research Ancient pathogen genomics as an emerging tool for infectious disease research, Published online: 05 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41576-019-0119-1 This article reviews recent advances in ancient pathogen genomics, from methodological improvements in retrieving whole genomes
A dispute between NHS England and Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust over plans to outsource the trust’s cancer scanning to a private company has been referred to the health secretary,…
Reliable results from several DNA sources Reliable results from several DNA sources, Published online: 04 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41571-019-0208-2 Reliable results from several DNA sources
Kong et al. show that histone and hemimethylated DNA reader domains are critical for UHRF1 to maintain aberrant DNA methylation in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Blocking either domain reverses DNA hypermethylation, reactivates epigenetically silenced tumor suppressor genes, and reduces CRC oncogenic
Publisher Correction: Fgf10 is essential for limb and lung formation Publisher Correction: Fgf10 is essential for limb and lung formation, Published online: 04 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0396-9 Publisher Correction: Fgf10 is essential for limb and lung formation
Direct comparison meta-analyses have reported benefits with pre-surgical vaginal preparation prior to cesarean delivery for the reduction of endometritis. These reports did not perform a multi-treatment comparison of the various antiseptic solutions assessed in prior studies.
Background Women are underrepresented in leading medical positions and academia. The gender-gap in authorship of congenital heart disease (CHD) publications remains unknown. As determinants of gender equity in this field are poorly characterised, we aimed to quantify and characterise publications
Lysosomal arginine is involved in mTORC1/S6K1 activation for cell growth. Jung et al. identify TM4SF5 as a membrane-based sensor of physiologic levels of arginine. TM4SF5 forms a complex with mTOR and the amino acid transporter SLC38A9 on lysosomal membranes in an
On March 18, 2019, the UK Government’s Department of Health and Social Care announced a public consultation on further restrictions to advertising of products high in fat, sugar, and salt on television and online. The consultation coincides with a WHO
Deep sequencing reveals the mutational landscape of human cirrhosis and in vivo CRISPR screening identifies functional roles for recurrently mutated genes in hepatocyte fitness and liver regeneration.
Leonardo da Vinci, whose quincentenary is marked in this issue of The Lancet, epitomised the Italian renaissance. The renaissance was a time of exceptional intellectual advancement, amid disruptive changes. Change was already underway at early universities, like Padua, which transformed
NHS policy makers should take action to try to reduce the risk of disputes developing between doctors and parents over the treatment of critically ill children and to tackle them when they arise, the…
Brain metastases respond to neratinib plus capecitabine Brain metastases respond to neratinib plus capecitabine, Published online: 02 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41571-019-0207-3 Brain metastases respond to neratinib plus capecitabine
In January the chief digital officer for NHS England, Juliet Bauer, left to take up a role at a Swedish digital start-up company. The company, called Kry (Livi in the UK), has developed a video…
Parous women have a lower risk for pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia (PE) or delivery of small for gestational age (SGA) neonates. However, parous women are a heterogeneous group of patients as they contain a low-risk cohort with previously uncomplicated
When the elite compete When the elite compete, Published online: 02 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41576-019-0123-5 A new study in Science reports the existence of a subpopulation of somatic cells from which ‘elite’ clones emerge that outperform other clones to drive reprogramming.
SPTLC2 mutations are associated with the neurological disorder HSAN-I, in which patients get frequent infections, attributed to loss of pain sensation and failure to seek treatment for minor injuries. Wu et al. show that protective CD8+ T cell responses are defective in
Journal of Neurotrauma, Volume 36, Issue 7, Page 975-987, April 1, 2019.
It is a great honor for me to receive the prestigious Gairdner Award for Biomedical Research. The title of this essay might imply that it will contain advice on how to win such a major scientific prize. However, my intention
The US state of Georgia’s majority Republican legislature has passed a bill outlawing abortions once a fetal heartbeat can be detected, effectively changing the latest point at which a woman can…
A little perspective It’s a pleasure to open this issue of EMJ with a healthy dose of perspectiven our constant quest for more and more resources to deliver excellence in healthcare, it’s all too easy to lose sight of how
TMB is linked with prognosis TMB is linked with prognosis, Published online: 01 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41571-019-0206-4 TMB is linked with prognosis
The UK’s exit from the European Union (EU) is arguably one of the worst self-inflicted harms any country has done to itself in peace-time. In a Health Policy piece in The Lancet in 2017, and updated in February, 2019, Fahy
A duty to recontact in genetics: context matters A duty to recontact in genetics: context matters, Published online: 01 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41576-019-0121-7 The clinical application of genomic technologies is driving new discoveries that may be relevant to individuals who have
At the turn of the century, prevailing dogma stated that the adult mammalian heart was incapable of self-repair. Postnatal growth reflected increases in cardiomyocyte size alone rather than through increases in cell number. This dogma was shaken by the demonstration
The unreliability of transport in London is summed up by the saying that you wait ages for your bus then two come along at once—and so it goes, apparently, with HIV cure stories. One story dominated news from the 2019
Suver et al. describe how walking flies use their two antennae to measure wind direction. They describe a mechanosensory pathway that encodes antennal movements, with higher-order neurons combining information from the two antennae to linearly encode wind direction.
Such and colleagues are right to describe modern slavery as a public health problem as well as a law enforcement issue.1 They also emphasise the missed opportunity for healthcare professionals to…
According to a recent study, lung carcinoma in situ lesions that develop into invasive tumors have a molecular signature distinct from those that spontaneously regress. These findings may aid in the development of a test to identify high-risk tumors that