bmj;365/may31_8/l2313/FAF1faPhoto credit: David AronsohnAmong the presidential portraits at the Royal College of GPs (RCGP), there is one that immediately draws the eye. In contrast to the dark suits…
Sleep is an important determinant of collegiate athlete health, well-being and performance. However, collegiate athlete social and physical environments are often not conducive to obtaining restorative sleep. Traditionally, sleep has not been a primary focus of collegiate athletic training and
Chanda et al. used reprogrammed human neurons to model the neurodevelopmental toxicity induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid, a potent teratogenic compound. By analyzing different phases of neuronal maturation in vitro, the authors identified valproate-mediated cellular mechanisms that selectively impair neuronal
Determine if abnormal global, transverse, and longitudinal ventricular contractility of the heart in fetuses with an estimated fetal weight
Nature Genetics, Published online: 30 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0444-5 Publisher Correction: Multi-trait analysis of genome-wide association summary statistics using MTAG
Ouchi et al. develop a reproducible method to generate multi-cellular human liver organoids from iPSCs and ESCs. The organoids recapitulate progressive features of steatohepatitis, including steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. A patient-derived organoid with lysosomal acid lipase deficiency exhibits the exaggerated steatohepatitis
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the patients who were followed up and treated in pediatric emergency service due to foreign body aspiration. Material and Methods: Patients admitted to Erciyes University Pediatric Emergency Unit in 2017 due
Key limitations of imaging single copies of highly abundant factors at specific intracellular sites of activity are overcome by an active target-locking system that achieves long-term tracking at single-molecule resolution.
Every year, snakebites kill between 81 000 and 138 000 people and cause long-lasting disabilities in another 400 000 people. This disease burden is likely to be an underestimate given snakebite is rarely notifiable, and many bites and deaths go unrecorded. The burden
What you need to knowGiant cell arteritis (GCA) is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment with glucocorticosteroidsHeadache is the most common presenting symptom but is not always…
Introduction: With no evidence to support extended radiation courses for the palliation of bone metastases, multiple guidelines were issued discouraging its use. We assessed contemporary use and cost of prolonged palliative radiotherapy in Medicare beneficiaries with bone metastases from breast
On April 30, 2019, TranspariMED, BUKO Pharma-Kampagne, Test-AAnkoop, and Health Action International, advocacy organisations that are concerned with transparency in medical research and equal access to medicines, released a document on the reporting of clinical trial data for 30 European
Fetal growth restriction refers to a fetus that does not reach its genetically predetermined growth potential. It is well recognized that growth restricted fetuses are at increased risk of both short and long-term adverse outcomes. Systematic evaluation of the evidence
Nature Reviews Genetics, Published online: 29 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41576-019-0134-2 This Review discusses the current status of expanded carrier screening, including existing recommendations and limitations. The author reviews the framework that is needed for successful comprehensive carrier screening programmes for all
The mammalian thirst circuit receives temporally distinct satiation signals by both liquid gulping action and gut osmolality sensing. These thirst satiation signals are functionally separable from the reward-related circuit activity.
A trainee general practitioner who faked a prescription for antibiotics from another doctor to treat her own “embarrassing medical condition” has been given a written warning by a medical…
Background Mutations in genes encoding ion channels or sarcomeric proteins are an important cause of hereditary cardiac disease. However, the severity of the resultant disease varies considerably even among those with an identical mutation. Such clinical variation is often thought
Objective ECG markers of heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) are lacking. We hypothesised that the Cornell product (CP) is a risk marker of HFpEF and has prognostic utility in HFpEF. Methods CP =[(amplitude of R wave in
Objective To determine the common indications for, and outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy surgery among black Africans in a low-resource setting. Methods and Analysis A retrospective, non-comparative case review was undertaken. Data from 1000 consecutive eyes of 1000 patients in
Background The molecular classification of gastric cancer recognises two subtypes prone to immune checkpoint blockade: the microsatellite unstable and the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related tumours. We aim to assess the concordance between immunohistochemistry and PCR for microsatellite status evaluation, and explore
Women and children bear a substantial part of the burden of opioid overuse in the United States. Opioid use during pregnancy can lead to neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, and both the mothers and babies may be at higher risk of
In 2018, more than 25 000 individuals entered and left the UK immigration detention system, most of whom were from Pakistan, Albania, and India. As many people in the system come from countries with substantial HIV epidemics, the importance HIV care
Audette et al. use automated training and in vitro electrophysiology to define cortical circuit changes during sensory-association learning. Pathway-specific analysis identifies higher-order thalamic inputs to sensory cortex as a site of synaptic potentiation during the earliest stages of learning.
More than 90 deaths in the United States have been caused by kratom between July 2016 and December 2017, according to a CDC report.
The UK’s competition watchdog has accused four drug companies of unlawfully colluding in an agreement that increased the price of a prescription-only medicine used to treat nausea and dizziness by…
Astigmatism and its components in 12-year-old Chinese children: the Anyang Childhood Eye Study (see page 768) In Chinese children (mostly 12-year-olds) with high a prevalence of astigmatism, refractive (RA) and corneal (CA) astigmatism were mainly “with-the-rule” and increased with the
The vocabulary currently used to describe genetic variants and their consequences reflects many years of studying and discovering monogenic disease with high penetrance. With the recent rapid expansion of genetic testing brought about by wide availability of high-throughput massively parallel
Nature Genetics, Published online: 27 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0420-0 Application of a deep-learning-based framework shows that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) harbor regulation-disrupting mutations of higher functional impact than those in unaffected siblings and identifies a convergent genetic landscape of
Kunst et al. generated a digital atlas of the larval zebrafish brain containing over 2,000 neuron morphologies, most of them previously unknown. These data are used to generate the first brain-wide wiring diagram with single-cell resolution for a vertebrate species.
Relatively little is known about the frequency and factors associated with miscarriage among women living with HIV.
Background and objective Clinical evaluation of pacing therapy in mitigating the aortic insufficiency after transchateter aortic valve implantation often gives contradictory outcomes. This study presents an in vitro investigation aimed at clarifying the effect of pacing on paravalvular leakage. Methods
Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology, Published online: 24 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41571-019-0225-1 Approximately 50% of patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are cured with chemotherapy. However, patients with relapsed and/or refractory DLBCL have few other treatment options. In this Review,
Several articles have implied that progestogen supplementation during pregnancy to reduce the risk of preterm birth (PTB) may increase the risk for developing GDM.
Public Health England has urged all parents to get their children vaccinated against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), especially if they did not have it when scheduled.The call comes as new figures…
Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology, Published online: 23 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41571-019-0233-1 Benefit from LCT in oligometastatic NSCLC
Artegiani et al. show that BAP1 mutation in human liver organoids coincides with loss of multiple epithelial characteristics through impairment of chromatin accessibility and gene expression, and this is critical for the acquisition of malignant features in a human model of
Xue et al. perform genomic and transcriptomic analyses of combined hepatocellular and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (cHCC-ICC). They show that combined and mixed types of cHCC-ICC have different clinical and molecular features and that Nestin expression may be a diagnostic biomarker for cHCC-ICC.
Civenni et al. demonstrate that the BET protein BRD4 regulates Mff transcription and mitochondrial fission, which is essential for the self-renewal, survival, and expansion of prostate cancer stem cells (CSCs). Pharmacological inhibition of BRD4 represents a promising therapeutic vulnerability in prostate
The single-trial dynamics of LIP neurons during decision-making are under debate. Zoltowski et al. extend latent stepping and ramping models of LIP dynamics and find that a robust fraction of LIP neurons is better described by each model class.
By understanding the impact of growth and patterning on leaf shape diversity, it is possible to convert the leaf morphology of A. thaliana to that of another plant species.
On May 15, 2019, the Alabama State Senate passed a bill that restricts the right to abortion by criminalising doctors who do the procedure. This was followed the next day by the Missouri State Senate passing a law forbidding abortions
Thank you Iliffe and Manthorpe for your thoughtful response to my editorial on burnout.12 I note your points that we do not know what burnout is, as long as studies are measuring it differently, and…
Purpose We sought to assess the safety of performing diagnostic radial access coronary angiography with uninterrupted anticoagulation on patients receiving direct oral anticoagulant therapy. Background Direct oral anticoagulants have become a popular choice for the prevention of thromboembolism. Risk factors
Background Nivolumab showed a survival benefit for advanced gastric cancer (AGC). However, an acceleration of tumour growth during immunotherapy, (hyperprogressive disease, HPD) has been reported in various cancers. This study reviewed the HPD in patients with AGC treated with nivolumab
Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology, Published online: 22 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41571-019-0231-3 In a landmark analysis, investigators of the Multicentric Italian Lung Detection (MILD) trial have confirmed 10-year mortality reductions with lung cancer screening using low-dose helical CT (LDCT). These data complement
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play strategic roles in tissue homeostasis and immunity. Walker et al. demonstrate via five-reporter polychrome mice the distinct divergence of ILC2 development from common ILC1, ILC3, and NK progenitors.
“Zero Malaria Starts With Me” was a theme of this year’s World Malaria Day on April 23. It echoes the African Union campaign and Sustainable Development Goal 3 to eliminate malaria by 2030. The number of malaria cases has fallen
We use single-cell RNA-seq analysis to comprehensively profile gene expression during mouse retinal development. We find major differences between early and late-stage, as well as primary and neurogenic, progenitors. We also find that NFI factors control cell-cycle exit and generation
In 2018 we learnt that rates of vaccination against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) in under 10s fell in the UK for the sixth consecutive year.1 From 2010 to 2017 an estimated half a million…
Results from randomised controlled trials make an important contribution to improvements in injury-related health. However, publication of findings from randomised controlled trials remains a rarity in the injury prevention literature. Increasing the quantity of randomised controlled trials research need not
The primary goal of pre-participation cardiac evaluation in athletes is to identify individuals at high risk of sudden death but other cardiac abnormalities may be discovered. Athletes tend to have larger aortic dimensions than sedentary controls however it is unclear if
Background Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is often the first manifestation of unrecognised cardiac disease. ECG abnormalities encountered in primary care settings may be warning signs of OHCA. Objective We examined the association between common ECG abnormalities and OHCA in a
Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology, Published online: 21 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41571-019-0232-2 Chemotherapy as a TONIC to invigorate PD-1 inhibition in TNBC
On March 6, on the International Childhood Cancer Awareness Day and ahead of the European Elections 2019, a manifesto from the Society for Paediatric Oncology Europe (SIOPE) and Childhood Cancer International (CCI) on Paediatric Oncology and Haematology was launched at
Commonly reported incidence rates for endometrial cancer (EC) fail to take into account both the large number of hysterectomies performed each year and the dynamic change in hysterectomy rate over the past decade. Large racial differences in pre-menopausal hysterectomy rates
VRC-PG05 was the only donor-derived antibody against the silentface (SF) of HIV-1 envelope described to date. Schoofs et al. identify the antibody SF12 and its relatives, which recognize the center of the SF with a different angle and more extensive protein
Nature Reviews Genetics, Published online: 21 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41576-019-0130-6 Gene expression is subjected to various random processes (referred to as ‘noise’) that contribute to variability in molecular phenotypes. As Eling, Morgan and Marioni describe, there are various challenges to studying
Women in Africa are 50 times more likely to die as a result of a cesarean delivery as women in high-income countries, a team of investigators from several African countries has reported. Neonates fare poorly, too. Their mortality rate after
Tuberculosis remains the world’s leading infectious cause of death. In 2017, an estimated 10 million people developed the disease worldwide, including 1 million children, and tuberculosis was the cause of death in an estimated 1·6 million people. Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission
It is often said that neurology is a diagnostic specialty. Colleagues in other specialties sometimes characterise neurologists as being interested in diagnosis but not in treatment. A superficial glance at the contents of this issue might add weight to that
It was the ability to combine an interest in science and people that drew Amar Puttanna to a career in medicine, and led him to his current role as a consultant in diabetes and endocrinology and…
Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology, Published online: 20 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41571-019-0230-4 My husband’s diagnosis with melanoma and our struggle to access effective therapy challenged what I had learnt about medical research. I have since founded a patient network, becoming a vocal
The relative impact of age, pregnancy and vaginal delivery on urinary incontinence is still an unresolved issue that involves the controversial question about the protective effect of cesarean section.
Nature Genetics, Published online: 20 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0438-3 Author Correction: New genetic signals for lung function highlight pathways and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease associations across multiple ancestries
Nature Reviews Genetics, Published online: 20 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41576-019-0140-4 A study in Cell incorporates metabolic networks into a machine-learning approach to provide mechanistic insights into bacterial antibiotic lethality.
Zhang et al. (2019) find that amacrine cell hyperactivation after RGC axotomy prevents IGF1 responsiveness. Blocking amacrine cell synaptic activity potentiates IGF1-mediated axon regeneration by maintaining IGF1R localization to primary cilia, a localization that is normally lost in injured RGCs.
Stroke is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity globally. Its highest incidence has been reported in Asia, especially China, followed by eastern Europe. The projections from the Burden of Stroke in Europe Report now indicate that the total number
Robin Fox, former Editor-in-Chief of The Lancet, once proposed that “editors should not be in post for more than 5 years so as to encourage innovation”. David Bowie, meanwhile, gave humankind 5 years until the end of the world on
“I was a board member at NHS Highland between 2011 and 2014 and during that time I saw what I thought were clear examples of a bullying culture. In 2017 I found out that I was one of a group
Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology, Published online: 17 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41571-019-0226-0 In recent decades, cancer survival has improved dramatically, resulting in a growing population of cancer survivors with chronic health needs and disease risks. While large epidemiological studies are useful in
Postpartum recovery from pelvic floor trauma associated with vaginal delivery may be impaired by the transient hypoestrogenic state associated with breastfeeding.
Nature Genetics, Published online: 17 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0437-4 Publisher Correction: Landscape of B cell immunity and related immune evasion in human cancers
Nature Reviews Genetics, Published online: 17 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41576-019-0131-5 Genomics has transformed the field of microbiology, but remaining challenges will need to be tackled for its benefits to be felt globally.
Mental health symptoms and disorders are ubiquitous in society and are too often underdiagnosed and undermanaged—or worse, ignored. We speak of mental health symptoms and disorders as if they are somehow separate from other ‘physical’ symptoms, injuries and illnesses. Mental
Global child healthAntibiotics in non-bloody diarrhoea Managing infectious diarrhoea is essentially uncomplicated. In only a small proportion of children, those with bloody diarrhoea (shigella, cholera amoebiasis) and associated toxicity or sepsis are antibiotics indicated. In other situations, they can prolong
“Sharp scratch.” It’s what we’re taught to say to patients just before we push the needle under the skin to take blood or insert a cannula. But does venepuncture actually feel like a sharp scratch?…
MacDougall et al. identify Ranbp3 and Atp2b1 as regulators of naive pluripotency exit. Intracellular Ca2+ levels decrease during exit, and increasing Ca2+ levels in combination with GSK3i or Tcf7l1−/− sustains self-renewal and pluripotency in the absence of inhibitors or LIF.
One of the key challenges in cancer research is how to effectively kill cancer cells while leaving the healthy cells intact. Cancer cells often have defects in cell death executioner mechanisms, which is one of the main reasons for therapy
Nature Reviews Genetics, Published online: 16 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41576-019-0138-y A study in Science uses experimental and population genomic approaches to examine the molecular underpinnings of evolved pollution resistance in Gulf killifish.
Background Estimation of left ventricular filling pressures (LVFP) is a determining factor in the follow-up of patients with cardiac amyloidosis (CA). Natriuretic peptides (NPs) and tissue Doppler imaging may be used to monitor LVFP in patients with CA. The aim
Hall et al. investigated 20 inpatient adults who were exposed to ultra-processed versus unprocessed diets for 14 days each, in random order. The ultra-processed diet caused increased ad libitum energy intake and weight gain despite being matched to the unprocessed diet for
Eukaryotic anti-terminator proteins suppress usage of early polyadenylation sites to prevent production of truncated proteins.
Dementia is one of the fastest growing public health problems. According to data from the 2016 Global Burden of Disease Study, the number of people living with dementia worldwide more than doubled from 20·2 million in 1990, to 43·8 million
Presynaptic CaV2.1 channels are confined in nanodomains, for which size and dwell time are modulated by network activity. Heck et al. show that changing the affinity to scaffold proteins by alternative splicing of CaV2.1 directly affects short-term plasticity.
Makers and distributors of opioids have been hit by a series of legal, financial, and public relations setbacks in recent days, suggesting that a public reckoning for North America’s opioid crisis is…
The evidence on the association between allergies and multiple sclerosis (MS) disease activity is scarce. In this issue of JNNP, Fakih and colleagues report that patients with MS and food allergies have a higher disease activity compared with patients with
The consultation version of the first BASHH guideline for the management of Mycoplasma genitalium was launched on 11 July.1 This coincided with a 1-day M. genitalium educational event in London, supported by Hologic and attended by 150 delegates from all
Adenylate kinase (AK) deficiency is a rare erythroenzymopathy associated with hereditary nonspherocytic haemolytic anaemia along with mental/psychomotor retardation in few cases. Diagnosis of AK deficiency depends on the decreased level of enzyme activity in red cell and identification of a
Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology, Published online: 15 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41571-019-0220-6 The oligometastatic paradigm challenges the prevailing view of metastasis as a disseminated process and proposes the existence of a spectrum of biological virulence within metastatic lesions. The authors present evidence
The use of polypropylene prolapse mesh to treat pelvic organ prolapse has been limited by mesh-related complications. Gynemesh PS mesh, implanted via sacrocolpopexy in rhesus macaques, negatively impacted vagina with thinning of vaginal muscularis and decreased vaginal smooth muscle contractility.
Upon infection, T cell clones harboring TCRs of distinct antigen affinity undergo differential expansion. Whether NK cells show similar clonal dynamics is not clear. By using retrogenic color-barcoding and single-cell adoptive transfers, Grassmann et al. show that NK cells adapt to cytomegalovirus
Background Drug-eluting stents (DES) have proven superior to bare-metal stents (BMS) in terms of safety and efficacy. However, inference to the female subgroup has been limited by low enrolment rates of women in clinical trials. The objective of this study
Nutrition has long been recognised as a key feature in the management of diabetes. Before the introduction of insulin therapy, a heavily restricted dietary intervention, with the minimum carbohydrates necessary for survival, was used to treat the disease. The approach
Pagani et al. investigated the temporal and spatial signature of GRP signaling, a key element of spinal itch relay. They find that GRP signals build up slowly and rather diffusely during stimulation, possibly explaining why itch is difficult to localize.
bmj;365/may15_15/l2201/FAF1faDerek Melville Prinsley was among the last the of the generation of doctors who served in the Royal Air Force during the second world war and among the last of the…
Once again, on behalf of the President, Board, Executive and Programme Committee at the British Cardiovascular Society (BCS), we look forward to welcoming you to Manchester in June for the BCS 2019 Annual Conference. Our theme this year is ‘Digital
Last month’s “Airwaves” celebrated musicals and this month we show that sitcoms are in the list of The Triumvirate’s guilty pleasures. Fawlty towers There is little doubt that eponymous hotel in Devon, Fawlty Towers, could have done with some organisation
Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology, Published online: 14 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41571-019-0229-x Anti-BCMA CAR T cells for MM
Sulaymaniyah (known also as Slemani) is a city in Kurdistan, Northern Iraq in the Middle-East, an amazing historical place, always known to be an important cultural centre for poetry and music, also called the Paris of Iraq or the bride
Smith and Lin et al. identify a glutathione S-transferase that decreases mitochondrial fusion in axons of neurons through unbiased genetic screening using Drosophila. gfzf mutants induce sustained hyperfusion through an enhanced oxidation of glutathione that increases the function of mitofusin.
The latest CDC data suggest that tuberculosis (TB) rates have reached the lowest ever reported in the United States. However, these levels are still not low enough to eliminate TB domestically.
The paper by Pisetsky et al raised some critical points on the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) on HEp-2 cells (HEp-2 IFA): (1) the low antinuclear antibodies (ANA) pretest and post-test probability, and (2) the variability of the IFA ANA result depending
There is considerable controversy about the causes of the epidemics of chronic kidney disease of undetermined causes (CKDu), affecting agricultural communities in Central America, South Asia and possibly other parts of the world. In this Editorial, we argue that currently
People can reduce their risk of dementia by adapting their lifestyle—such as getting regular exercise, not smoking, and maintaining healthy blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood sugar…
Background Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are at substantial risk of developing peripheral artery disease (PAD). We recently developed a clinical/proteomic panel to predict obstructive PAD. In this study, we compare the accuracy of this panel for the diagnosis of
Background Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are at substantial risk of developing peripheral artery disease (PAD). We recently developed a clinical/proteomic panel to predict obstructive PAD. In this study, we compare the accuracy of this panel for the diagnosis of
Prophylactic TNF blockade reduces autoimmune toxicity Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology, Published online: 13 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41571-019-0223-3 Prophylactic TNF blockade reduces autoimmune toxicity
Multi-tissue transcriptome analyses identify genetic mechanisms underlying neuropsychiatric traits Nature Genetics, Published online: 13 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0409-8 Multi-tissue transcriptome analyses using PrediXcan identify numerous trait-associated genes for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and broad depression, and highlight potentially
Long-range enhancer–promoter contacts in gene expression control Nature Reviews Genetics, Published online: 13 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41576-019-0128-0 For appropriate control of gene expression, enhancers must communicate with the right target genes at the right time, typically over large genomic distances. In
The molecular mechanisms for activation and regulation of gasdermin D (GSDMD) are poorly characterized. Liu et al. report the crystal structures of the full-length murine and human GSDMDs, which reveal distinct and common features of autoinhibition among gasdermin family members, as
The functional role of dorsomedial striatum low-threshold spiking interneurons (LTSIs) in behavior has been largely unexplored. Holly et al. show that LTSIs have reward outcome-associated activity that decreases with and causally modulates goal-directed learning.
The NHS in England has been trying to get to grips with rising numbers of accident and emergency (A&E) attendances and admissions for several years, with the 2013 Keogh review, the 2014 Five Year…
When Beauchamp and Childress articulated the necessary and sufficient conditions for informed consent, they might have thought that would be the final word on what informed consent is.1 It’s emphasis in the Belmont Report,2 the Nuremberg Code,3 the Helsinki Declaration4
Aim To describe the population of patients with previously diagnosed peripheral artery disease (PAD) experiencing a myocardial infarction (MI) and to investigate 1-year major adverse cardiac events (MACE: all-cause mortality, reinfarction, stroke and heart failure hospitalisation) following MI. Background MI
HDAC inhibitors tested in phase III trial HDAC inhibitors tested in phase III trial, Published online: 10 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41571-019-0224-2 HDAC inhibitors tested in phase III trial
Complete surgical resection affords the best prognosis at the time of interval debulking surgery. When complete surgical resection is unachievable, optimal residual disease is considered the next best alternative. Despite contradicting evidence on the survival benefit of interval debulking surgery
Ancient genomes shed light on dark horses Ancient genomes shed light on dark horses, Published online: 10 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41576-019-0136-0 A study of ancient horse genomes, described in Cell, reveals the existence of two now-extinct horse lineages and shows that
A 10 year old girl presented to her local hospital with a one week history of fever of up to 40°C, lethargy, and decreased oral intake. Her parents reported an occasional dry, non-productive…
Journal of Neurotrauma, Volume 36, Issue 10, May 15, 2019.
While primary school enrolment rate in developing regions reached 91% at the end of the Millennium Development Goal era, 60% of children and adolescents worldwide (617 million) are not achieving basic proficiency in reading and mathematics expected of their school
Phase segregation of ooplasm and yolk granules in zebrafish oocytes relies on bulk actin polymerization waves, which pull the ooplasm toward the animal pole by bulk actin flows and push the yolk granules toward the vegetal pole through the formation
The Committee on Climate Change (CCC), an independent body that advises the UK Government, published a report on May 2, Net zero—the UK’s contribution to stopping global warming. Stating that net zero is “necessary, feasible, and cost-effective”, the CCC set
I tried to placate an angry man in my clinic the other day but I wasn’t very successful. The problem wasn’t that he had to wait two weeks to get an appointment, it was more profound.“All I want to…
Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a complex and highly morbid entity conceptualised as a vicious cycle of injury, cardiac and systemic decompensation, and further injury and decompensation. The pathophysiology of CS is incompletely understood but limited clinical trial experience suggests that
Author Correction: Retinal transcriptome and eQTL analyses identify genes associated with age-related macular degeneration Author Correction: Retinal transcriptome and eQTL analyses identify genes associated with age-related macular degeneration, Published online: 08 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0430-y Author Correction: Retinal transcriptome and eQTL
Molecular digital data storage using DNA Molecular digital data storage using DNA, Published online: 08 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41576-019-0125-3 Throughout evolution, DNA has been the primary medium of biological information storage. In this article, Ceze, Nivala and Strauss discuss how DNA
Saneyoshi et al. find that stimulation of single spine causes rapid formation of a reciprocally activating signaling complex between CaMKII and a Rac-GEF Tiam1, which stably activates Rac1 and maintains enlarged spine structure during LTP.
General practices in deprived areas are being disproportionately affected by “a mounting cycle of pressures” driven by workforce shortages and higher patient volumes, the Health Foundation has…
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) constitutes the most common malignancy of the pancreas. With a 5-year survival rate of below 10% and a median survival of less than 12 months following diagnosis, PDAC remains a major biomedical challenge. Due to the
GITR agonism — combination is key GITR agonism — combination is key, Published online: 07 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41571-019-0221-5 GITR agonism — combination is key
Smartphones have recently been applied in the medical setting. However, the literature evaluating the utility of smartphones in gynecologic oncology is limited.
NLRP3 inflammasome activation causes IL-1β release either with or without cell death, but how cells regulate these outcomes is unclear. Carty et al. show that the TIR protein SARM negatively regulates IL-1β release by directly targeting NLRP3 yet is required for
The results of the PARADIGM-HF study have shed a new light on the treatment of heart failure (HF).1 PARADIGM is a trial of ‘three firsts’: The first time a trial in HF has used a new drug to replace a
“The overall absolute increase in cancer risk for one bottle of wine per week equals that of five (men) or ten cigarettes per week (women).” This was the headline finding of a study led by Theresa Hydes (University of Southampton,
Chronic application of patterned visual stimulation in neurodegeneration mouse models to entrain gamma oscillations results in preservation of neuronal and synaptic density across multiple brain regions.
I was saddened to read that palliative care doctors think there is a culture of fear and intimidation in their profession around the assisted dying debate.1 The Association for Palliative Medicine,…
Female fruit flies are less receptive after mating because of ejaculate from previous mating partners and the act of copulation itself. Shao et al. characterize a neural circuit mediating the sensory signals of copulation that lead to reduced female receptivity.
Objective High aortic stiffness may reduce myocardial perfusion pressure and contribute to development of myocardial ischaemia. Whether high aortic stiffness is associated with myocardial ischaemia in patients with stable angina and non-obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) is less explored. Methods
Immune-checkpoint inhibition for metastatic triple-negative breast cancer: safety first? Immune-checkpoint inhibition for metastatic triple-negative breast cancer: safety first?, Published online: 03 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41571-019-0216-2 Breast oncologists are intimately familiar with managing treatment-related adverse events of endocrine, cytotoxic and targeted therapies,
bmj;365/may03_8/l2065/FAF1faNational Gallery, LondonGPs looking for way to boost their staff’s morale might take a lesson from one practice fortunate enough to be able to display a 17th century…
Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk of dementia. It is presently unknown to what extent AF contributes to dementia onset independently from prevalent and incident cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs)/transient ischaemic attacks (TIAs). Methods MEDLINE/PubMed and Embase databases
Ishizawa et al. report that hyperactivating the mitochondrial caseinolytic protease P (ClpP) degrades respiratory chain proteins, disrupts mitochondrial function, and selectively kills cancer cells, regardless of p53 status. They identify imipridones as hyperactivators of ClpP and show their anti-tumor activity.
Numerous reports have documented bacteria in the placental membranes and basal plate decidua in the absence of immunopathology using histological techniques. Similarly, independent metagenomic characterizations have identified an altered taxonomical makeup in association with spontaneous preterm birth (PTB). Here we
Reprogramming of fatty acid metabolism in glioblastoma is a known phenomenon; however, the drivers of this process are little understood. Here, Duman et al. demonstrate that ACBP mediates the availability of fatty acyl-CoA into mitochondria, driving β-oxidation and promoting tumorigenesis. Removal
Sabariego et al. provide evidence that mEC is required for working memory but not by sustaining hippocampal time cell activity during delay periods. Rather, loss of mEC inputs decreased the differential hippocampal coding between spatial locations during the encoding phase of
Genome-wide data from 278 ancient equids provide insights into how ancient equestrian civilizations managed, exchanged, and bred horses and indicate vast loss of genetic diversity as well as the existence of two extinct lineages of horses that failed to contribute
The use of rape as a weapon of war is an unconscionable yet common phenomenon. An annual report from the UN Secretary General last month documents active use of sexual violence in 37 current conflicts, including in the Democratic Republic
Vision: JAMA Pediatrics will be the most respected source of information for investigators, providers, and policy makers seeking the highest quality evidence to guide decision making.
Değerli Adli Bilimciler, Adli Tıp Bülteni’nin 2019 yılı ilk sayısıyla karşınızdayız. 1919’dan 2019 yılına, 14 Mart’ın 100. yılının tüm sağlık çalışanlarına ve adli bilimler alanında çalışan hepimize başarı ve barış getirmesini diliyoruz. Adli Tıp Bülteni’nin, DOAJ (Directory of Open Access
Amaç: Adli Psikiyatri pek çok ülkede hali hazırda psikiyatrinin bir yan dalı olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Ancak ülkemizde henüz yapılandırılmış bir eğitimi yoktur. Bu çalışmayla, psikiyatri hekimlerinde, sağlık hukuku temel bakış açısıyla adli psikiyatri alanında biriken bilginin düzeyini ölçmek ve camiada adli
Amaç:Muğla Adli Tıp Şube Müdürlüğüne başvuran gençlik yaş grubu cinsel saldırı olgularının değerlendirilmesiyle durum tespiti, bölgesel özelliklerin ortaya konması, öneriler geliştirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Gereç ve Yöntem:Haziran 2012-Aralık 2016 tarihleri arasında cinsel suç nedeniyle muayenesi yapılmış 477 olgu arasından 15-24 yaş grubunda
Amaç: Adli Antropoloji’de, insan kemiklerindeki kırıklar, ezikler, kesikler ve delikler analiz edilerek travma çeşidi, ölüm şekli ve buna bağlı muhtemelölüm nedeni tahminleri yapılmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın amacı, ölüm nedeni travmaya bağlı bireylerin kemiklerindeki kırıkları, BT kullanarak perimortem süreçte incelemek, kırıkların ölümle
Giriş ve amaç: Bu çalışmada çocukluk çağı elektrik yaralanmalarının demografik ve klinik özelliklerinin belirlenmesi, klinik sonucu etkileyen faktörlerin saptanması amaçlanmıştır. Gereç ve yöntem: Ocak 2008- Aralık 2015 tarihleri arasında elektrik yaralanması nedeniyle acil servise başvuran 112 hastanın dosya verileri geriye
Scottish MPs have called on the government to undertake an “urgent review” of GP recruitment and funding to tackle chronic workforce shortages.A motion tabled by the Scottish Green Party, which…
Advancing cancer genomics Advancing cancer genomics, Published online: 01 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0419-6 The field of cancer genomics is currently in an exciting and fast-paced era. With advances in sequencing technologies, computational approaches and tumor models, understanding of cancer processes is
Despite a 25% reduction worldwide in the incidence of HIV between 2010 and 2017, a recent report from UNAIDS highlights the growing problem of HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID). Since the 2016 UN General Assembly Special Session on
Journal of Neurotrauma, Volume 36, Issue 9, Page 1389-1398, May 1, 2019.
Ferent et al. elucidate how the Shh receptor Boc works together with Ptch1 to transduce the Shh signal in axon guidance. They demonstrate that Numb-mediated internalization of Boc is required for Ptch1 internalization, activation of signaling, and Shh-mediated axon guidance.
In their editorial, Acharya and colleagues say that recreational use of nitrous oxide is an emerging public health problem.1In hospital, nitrous oxide is generally used as an analgesic for short…
Researchers report using structure-based design to create small molecules capable of preventing the viral protein Epstein–Barr Nuclear Antigen 1 from binding to DNA, thus blocking viral replication. The molecules inhibited the growth of tumors in cell lines and in patient-derived
Observational studies demonstrate that women with severe periodontitis have a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes like preterm birth and low birth weight. Standard treatment for periodontitis in the form of scaling and root planing during the second trimester failed
Mondor et al. demonstrate that subcapsular sinus macrophages (SSMs) self-maintain by proliferation in the adult mouse lymph node and that homeostasis of SSMs and medullary sinus macrophages (MSMs) relies on secretion of CSF-1 by neighboring lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs).
Objectives We aimed to assess for sex differences in invasive parameters of acute microvascular reperfusion injury and infarct characteristics on cardiac MRI after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods Patients with STEMI undergoing emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were prospectively
How VIP interneurons modulate network-level activity to regulate behavior is not understood. Lee et al. show that in the elevated plus maze, prefrontal VIP neurons promote open arm avoidance by disinhibiting theta-frequency communication that transmits anxiety-related information across hippocampal-prefrontal networks.
On March 21, 2019, the US FDA suspended all clinical trials investigating the use of venetoclax—a BCL-2 inhibitor—for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. The decision was based on interim results of the phase 3 BELLINI