Disentangling the tangled web of Neisseria gonorrhoeae transmission: how important are oropharyngeal infections?

The prevalence of gonorrhoea within populations is sustained by continued transmission from asymptomatically infected persons, particularly core group transmitters within sexual networks associated with high gonococcal transmission frequencies.1 It is believed that core group transmitters typically maintain a longer period

Mike’s Labels

Mike is a homeless chronic alcoholic. I know this because I wrote his label right here on his medical record. The first sentence, variations of which appear hundreds of times in his file, reads, “53-year-old homeless male, chronic alcoholic, presenting

Diversity matters

Nature Reviews Genetics, Published online: 16 August 2019; doi:10.1038/s41576-019-0162-y For genomics to fulfil its potential of improving human health, diversity and inclusion must be recognized as essential catalysts of research success.

The aetiology of death for marathon runner Phidippides?Endurance training and myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary artery disease may have been the cause of death of Phidippides, from present day evidence of an athlete who survived, and is discussed

Phidippides was a legendary Greek runner who ran from Marathon to Athens in 490 BC to announce the victory of the Greeks over the Persians. After running about 40 km to the Acropolis in Athens, he promptly collapsed and died.

Defining chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy subtypes

An electrophysiological and biopsy study of 106 patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy identifies differences between disease subtypes Chronic inflammatory neuropathies include multifocal motor neuropathy, which is purely motor and often associated with complement-fixing antibodies to ganglioside GM1, paraproteinaemic demyelinating

Enhanced mGlu5 Signaling in Excitatory Neurons Promotes Rapid Antidepressant Effects via AMPA Receptor Activation

Conventional antidepressants have limited efficacy and many side effects, highlighting the need for fast-acting and specific medications. Holz et al. utilize cell-membrane-permeable TAT-fused peptides, which specifically modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission, as a novel strategy for rapid and effective antidepressant treatment.

Programming of Distinct Chemokine-Dependent and -Independent Search Strategies for Th1 and Th2 Cells Optimizes Function at Inflamed Sites

Immune responses are functionally tailored to best contain a specific pathogen challenge. T cells differentiate into functionally distinct subsets (Th1, Th2, Th17) defined by discrete cytokine production. Gaylo-Moynihan et al. find that functional specialization also extends to the navigation system used by

Gene Therapy

Gene therapy has provided treatment options for diseases that are beyond the reach of traditional approaches. Since 2016, between the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), six gene therapy products have been approved: two

Assessment of clinical and occupational cardiovascular riskThis second article in the occupational cardiology series discusses risk for the individual worker, the remainder of the workforce and the public in high-hazard occupations

Physicians assessing cardiovascular risk in a high-hazard workforce face a complex problem. A cardiovascular event in routine operations performed by high-hazard workers may result in widespread loss of life or extensive environmental damage. Using cheap, reliable, and reproducible screening tools,

A Diagnosis to Chew On

Foreword. In this Journal feature, information about a real patient is presented in stages (boldface type) to an expert clinician, who responds to the information by sharing relevant background and reasoning with the reader (regular type). The authors’ commentary follows.

Toppling TAD tenets

Nature Reviews Genetics, Published online: 31 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41576-019-0164-9 A study in Nature Genetics shows that genomic rearrangements that cause extensive changes to chromatin topology do not alter expression for the majority of genes.

Highlights from this issue

Diagnostic uncertainty and physician experience We commonly use chest x-ray (CXR) to diagnose community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in the Emergency Department. The 2015 ESCAPED study found that in patients without parenchymal infiltrates on CXR, routine thoracic CT scan was positive for

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