Labor epidural analgesia and subsequent risk of offspring autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A cross-national cohort study of 4.5 million individuals and their siblings

A recent study has suggested that labor epidural analgesia may be associated with increased rates of offspring autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Subsequent replication attempts have lacked sufficient power to confidently exclude the possibility of a small effect and the causal

Real-world bleeding in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and prescribed different combinations of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in England: a population-based cohort study emulating a ‘target trial

Objective To estimate the incidence and HRs for bleeding for different dual antiplatelet therapies (DAPT) in a real-world population with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in England. Design A retrospective, population-based cohort study emulating a target

Lactogenesis and breastfeeding after immediate versus delayed birth-hospitalization insertion of etonogestrel contraceptive implant: A non-inferiority trial

Initiating a progestin-based contraceptive prior to the drop in progesterone required to start lactogenesis stage II (LII) could theoretically impact lactation. Previous studies have shown that initiating progestin-based contraception in the postnatal period prior to birth-hospitalization discharge has no detriment

Metastasis

Metastasis, the major cause of cancer death, represents one of the major challenges in oncology. Scientists are still trying to understand the biological basis underlying the dissemination and outgrowth of tumor cells, why these cells can remain dormant for years,

Ildikō Schuller

bmj;378/aug05_10/o1953/FAF1faIldikō Schuller was born to an English mother and a Hungarian refugee father and displayed her inherited imagination, passion, and humility from an early age. She qualified from the (then) London Hospital in 1984 and entered postgraduate training in obstetrics

Natural history of lower urinary tract symptoms in treatment-seeking women with pelvic organ prolapse; the Symptoms of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction Research Network (LURN)

The association of pelvic organ prolapse with overactive bladder, other lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), and the natural history of those symptoms is not well characterized. Previous cross-sectional studies demonstrated conflicting relationships between prolapse and LUTS.

Cross-ancestry genome-wide meta-analysis of 61,047 cases and 947,237 controls identifies new susceptibility loci contributing to lung cancer

Nature Genetics, Published online: 01 August 2022; doi:10.1038/s41588-022-01115-x A cross-ancestry genome-wide association meta-analysis of lung cancer including 61,047 cases and 947,237 controls identifies five new cross-ancestry susceptibility loci and highlights ancestry-specific effects of common and rare variants on lung cancer

Error in Author’s Name

In the Original Investigation titled “Childhood Asthma Incidence, Early and Persistent Wheeze, and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Factors in the ECHO/CREW Consortium,” published online May 23, 2022, an author’s name contained errors in the byline and contributions section. The author’s name has

The Brown University Oncology Group Experience With FOLFOX + Nab-paclitaxel [FOLFOX-A] for Metastatic and Locally Advanced Pancreatic, BrUOG-292 and BrUOG-318

Objectives: To evaluate response rate, toxicity, and efficacy of the novel combination of nab-paclitaxel, oxaliplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin [FOLFOX-A] in patients with advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma [PDAC]. Methods: BrUOG-292 and BrUOG-318 were two concurrently run, prospective, single-arm phase II studies

Arun Raha

bmj;378/jul22_10/o1807/FAF1faArun Raha worked in India for a couple of years before coming to the UK in 1967. After a few years of working as a trainee in general medicine, he went on to work in general practice in 1971. He

Multispecialty multidisciplinary input into comorbidities along with treatment optimisation in heart failure reduces hospitalisation and clinic attendance

Aims Heart failure (HF) is associated with comorbidities which independently influence treatment response and outcomes. This retrospective observational study (January 2020–June 2021) analysed the impact of monthly HF multispecialty multidisciplinary team (MDT) meetings to address management of HF comorbidities and

Nearly half of patients with chronic tendinopathy may have a neuropathic pain component, with significant differences seen between different tendon sites: a prospective cohort of more than 300 patients

Objectives Identifying the prevalence of neuropathic pain components in patients with chronic tendinopathy conditions using the Self-Administered Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (S-LANSS) questionnaire. Methods Patients with chronic tendinopathy and ‘tendon-like’ conditions treated within a single hospital outpatient

Highlights from this issue

Rumours of the demise of the observational study have been grossly exaggerated So, maybe I’ve taken some artistic licence with Mark Twain’s original version, but this methodological ‘family’ deserved a fair backing. Take the cohort design: this may have had

The impact of insurance mandates on donor oocyte utilization: an analysis of 39,338 donor oocyte cycles from the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology registry.

Nineteen states passed legislation mandating insurance coverage of assisted reproductive technology (ART), and out-of-pocket costs associated with in vitro fertilization (IVF) vary significantly depending on the region. Consequently, it has been observed that ART utilization differs regionally and is associated

Cardiopulmonary exercise testing for cardiovascular risk assessment in patients undergoing gastric and oesophageal cancer surgery: results from a prospective interventional cohort study

Background Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) has shown to be useful for preoperative risk stratification in various types of intra-abdominal and thoracic surgery. However, data about the predictive value of CPET for cardiovascular outcome after gastric or oesophageal cancer surgery are

Correction: Integrating vocational rehabilitation and mental healthcare to improve the return-to-work process for people on sick leave with depression or anxiety: results from a three-arm, parallel randomised trial

Hoff A, Poulsen RM, Fisker J, et al. Integrating vocational rehabilitation and mental healthcare to improve the return-to-work process for people on sick leave with depression or anxiety: results from a three-arm, parallel randomised trial. Occup Environ Med 2022;79:134–42. The

Shortening of leucocyte telomere length is independently correlated with high body mass index and subcutaneous obesity (predominantly truncal), in Asian Indian women with abnormal fasting glycemia

Introduction Leucocyte telomere length (LTL) is linked to accelerate aging and premature mortality. In this research, we aimed to explore the relations between biochemical and anthropometry markers and LTL in Asian Indian women with abnormal fasting glycemia (impaired fasting glucose).

Change of the residual myometrial thickness during pregnancy after laparoscopic niche resection in comparison to controls without niche surgery; a prospective comparative cohort study

Reduced residual myometrial thickness before and during pregnancy is associated with uterine rupture or dehiscence after vaginal birth after caesarean section. Laparoscopic niche resection performed in case of gynecological symptoms has shown to increase residual myometrial thickness six months after

The etiological spectrum of bowel obstruction and early postoperative outcome among neonates at a tertiary hospital in Uganda

Background Bowel obstruction is a common surgical emergency in newborns. One-fourth of neonates with obstruction suffer postoperative complications, with high mortality, especially in low-income countries. Factors attributed to mortality include prematurity, late presentation and associated multiple congenital anomalies. The prevalence

COVID fog demystified

Acute mild respiratory SARS-CoV-2 infection can lead to a more chronic cognitive syndrome known as “COVID fog.” New findings from Fernández-Castañeda et al. reveal how glial dysregulation and consequent neural circuit dysfunction may contribute to cognitive impairments in long COVID.

Errors in Table

In the Original Contribution titled “Association Between Helicopter vs Ground Emergency Medical Services and Survival for Adults With Major Trauma,” published in the April 18, 2012, issue of JAMA, Table 1 has been fixed to include correct data for the

Decoding the zebrafish genome

Nature Genetics, Published online: 04 July 2022; doi:10.1038/s41588-022-01080-5 A large-scale collaborative effort now provides a comprehensive annotation of functional non-coding elements in the zebrafish genome. This work serves as an essential foundation for future studies to understand how gene regulatory

Low-dose antenatal betamethasone treatment achieves preterm lung maturation equivalent to that of the WHO dexamethasone regimen but with reduced endocrine disruption in a sheep model of pregnancy

This study demonstrates that, in a sheep model of pregnancy, low-dose antenatal steroid treatments (66% reduction in steroid administered) achieve equivalent lung maturation to standard-dose regimens currently in use. The low-dose regimen was predicted to achieve lower peak steroid exposures

Single-cell and bulk transcriptome sequencing identifies two epithelial tumor cell states and refines the consensus molecular classification of colorectal cancer

Nature Genetics, Published online: 30 June 2022; doi:10.1038/s41588-022-01100-4 A single-cell transcriptomic analysis of 63 patients with colorectal cancer classifies tumor cells into two epithelial subtypes. An improved tumor classification based on epithelial subtype, microsatellite stability and fibrosis reveals differences in

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