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Charleese Williams is the winner of the 2021 Rising Black Scientists Award for an undergraduate scholar. For this award, we asked emerging Black scientists to tell us about the experiences that sparked their interest in the life sciences, their vision

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What the brochure says The WHO top ten list of threats to global health feature many directly relevant to children: climate change, pollution; vaccine hesitancy; dengue; COVID-19; influenza; antimicrobial resistance – all ‘deserving members’ of this unenviable top table, though

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Ever since Hughlings Jackson’s pioneering work, neurologists have tried to localise a clinical presentation—either explicitly or subconsciously—in terms of the level of the nervous system affected. This approach is particularly important when trying to disentangle challenging clinical problems—exemplified by the

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Welcome to the February 2022 issue of the Emergency Medicine Journal. COVID-19 continues to dominate headlines and remains important to our practice. In this issue, we have published four more articles relating to COVID-19. In addition, we have four valuable

Efficacy and safety of efpeglenatide in key patient subgroups from the BALANCE randomized trial, stratified by pre-diabetes status, BMI, and age at baseline

Introduction Efpeglenatide is a long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist being developed to improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes (T2D). In the BALANCE 205 study (NCT02075281), efpeglenatide significantly reduced body weight versus placebo in patients with obesity, or overweight with

Clinical phenotypes and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2, influenza, RSV and seven other respiratory viruses: a retrospective study using complete hospital data

Background An understanding of differences in clinical phenotypes and outcomes COVID-19 compared with other respiratory viral infections is important to optimise the management of patients and plan healthcare. Herein we sought to investigate such differences in patients positive for SARS-CoV-2

Correction: Exosomes derived from Fusobacterium nucleatum-infected colorectal cancer cells facilitate tumour metastasis by selectively carrying miR-1246/92b-3p/27a-3p and CXCL16

Guo S, Chen J, Chen F, et al. Exosomes derived from Fusobacterium nucleatum-infected colorectal cancer cells facilitate tumour metastasis by selectively carrying miR-1246/92b-3p/27a-3p and CXCL16. Gut 2021;70:1507–19. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2020-321187 The representative image of Ex SW480 cells in Figure 2D, the

Elimination of fluorescent protein immunogenicity permits modeling of metastasis in immune-competent settings

Transplantation models allow one to faithfully recapitulate the clinical course of metastatic disease, functionally screen for regulators of dormancy and metastasis, and conduct gold-standard assessment of metastasis-initiating potential (Quintana et al., 2008). Historically, these studies have been conducted in immune-compromised settings.

Rapid Initiation of Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy After Diagnosis is Associated With Improved Pathologic Response in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

Introduction: In rectal cancer, neoadjuvant chemoradiation (NCRT) is preferred because of toxicity profile, improved resectability and sphincter preservation, although with no impact on overall survival. Pathologic complete response (pCR) to NCRT has been linked with longer disease-free survival (DFS). The

Progress in the understanding of the pathophysiology of immunologic maladaptation related to early-onset preeclampsia and metabolic syndrome related to late-onset preeclampsia

Among mammalian species, human reproduction has 2 outstanding features. The human hemochorial placentation is characterized by a very deep endovascular trophoblast invasion in the spiral arteries, reaching deep into the myometrium. This requires an agonistic direct cell-cell interaction between the

Beyond genetics for cancer evolution

Nature Reviews Genetics, Published online: 05 January 2022; doi:10.1038/s41576-021-00446-5 A new study in Nature uses mouse models of acute myeloid leukaemia to demonstrate that non-genetic transcriptional signatures are mitotically heritable determinants of clonal fitness that influence cancer progression.

Autoimmune retinopathy with associated anti-retinal antibodies as a potential immune-related adverse event associated with immunotherapy in patients with advanced cutaneous melanoma: case series and systematic review

Objective To demonstrate the spectrum of autoimmune retinopathy (AIR) associated with immunotherapy for advanced cutaneous melanoma. Methods and analysis Retrospective chart review on patients with advanced cutaneous melanoma who developed AIR after initiating immunotherapy. Complete ophthalmic examination and relevant ancillary

Atrial fibrillation detected at screening is not a benign condition: outcomes in screen-detected versus clinically detected atrial fibrillation. Results from the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-stage Disease (PREVEND) study

Aims It is unknown whether screen-detected atrial fibrillation (AF) carries cardiovascular risks similar to clinically detected AF. We aimed to compare clinical outcomes between individuals with screen-detected and clinically detected incident AF. Methods We studied 8265 participants (age 49 ±

Sensational channels

This year’s Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to David Julius and Ardem Patapoutian for “explaining the molecular basis for sensing heat, cold and mechanical force.” Their findings capped off a scientific quest to identify the mechanisms within

Cut it out or wait it out? Case series of middle fossa arachnoid cysts presenting with psychiatric symptoms and a discussion of the ethics of neurosurgical management

Arachnoid cysts have been linked to neuropsychiatric morbidity. We describe two patients presenting with dissociative and manic symptoms believed to be associated with middle fossa arachnoid cysts. They were managed medically and remitted eventually, but symptoms were resistant. We briefly

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Optimising therapeutic hypothermia Using the National Neonatal Research Database, Lara Shipley and colleagues studied infants≥36 weeks gestation who were admitted to UK neonatal units with moderate or severe hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE). Between 2011 and 2016 there were 5059 infants.

CUMS and dexamethasone induce depression-like phenotypes in mice by differentially altering gut microbiota and triggering macroglia activation

Background Although the link between gut microbiota and depression has been suggested, changes of gut microbiota vary largely among individuals with depression. Aims Explore the heterogeneity of microbiota–gut–brain axis and new pathogenic characteristics in murine models of depression. Methods Adolescent

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